s ) Thus, while the majority of neurons fired reliably around

s.). Thus, while the majority of neurons fired reliably around CP673451 their individual preferred gamma phase, we found that different neurons fired at strongly divergent preferred gamma phases. Further, NS cells are more synchronized individually to the LFP gamma cycle, yet do not fire more synchronously as a population than the BS cells. This gamma phase diversity contrasted with the diversity in alpha phases. Figure 4C suggests that the distribution of BS cell prestimulus alpha phases

is much less dispersed than the distribution of BS cell sustained stimulation gamma phases (Figure 4A), despite similar alpha and gamma locking strengths and higher spike counts (that de-noises the phase histograms) during the sustained stimulation period. Indeed, BS cells’ alpha network-PPC was reduced by only ∼35% (2.1 × 10−3 ± 0.31 × 10−3 versus 3.0 × 10−3 ± 0.48 × 10−3, p < 0.05, bootstrap test, n = 33) relative to the delay-adjusted network-PPC, indicating that BS cells tended to fire at the same alpha phase

(Figure 5B). While the BS cells’ delay-adjusted network-PPC did not differ between the gamma and alpha GDC-0973 clinical trial frequency, the network-PPC was almost an order of magnitude larger for the alpha- than for the gamma-band (0.54 × 10−3 ± 0.24 × 10−3 versus 3.8.10−3 ± 0.68, n = 18, p < 0.001, bootstrap test). In other words, although BS cells are individually equally synchronized to the LFP gamma and alpha cycle, they fire more coherently as a population in the alpha-band. The high alpha network-PPC for BS cells contrasted

with the low alpha network-PPC for NS cells, indicating a larger degree of alpha-phase differences between NS than between BS cells. One factor that may have contributed to the observed diversity in preferred gamma phases across units is variability in LFP phases across electrodes. To compare the diversity Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease in LFP phases across electrodes with the diversity in preferred spike-LFP phases across single units, we defined a spike-LFP phase homogeneity measure (Supplemental Experimental Procedures), which assessed to what extent the spike phases relative to one LFP were coincident (in phase) with the spike phases relative to the other LFPs and is defined in analogy to the network-PPC. We then averaged these spike-LFP phase homogeneity values across single units and compared them to the delay-adjusted spike-LFP phase homogeneity values. We found little diversity of LFP phases in comparison to the homogeneity in spike-LFP phases across units, although the observed spike-LFP phase homogeneity was reduced by a factor of ∼35%–40% relative to the delay-adjusted spike-LFP phase homogeneity (Figure 5C), consistent with Maris et al. (2013). We conclude that the diversity in LFP phases across electrodes was relatively low and thereby unlikely to contribute substantially to the observed diversity in spike-LFP phases across single units. The diversity in preferred spike-LFP phases may be a function of spatial distances between units.

These data confirmed the finding of a peak knee flexion moment an

These data confirmed the finding of a peak knee flexion moment and a peak of hip extension moment immediately after the foot strike by Mann and Sprague.43 and 44 These data, however, also demonstrated that knee and hip joint resultant powers were all positive when the peak knee flexion moment and peak hip extension moment occurred immediately after the foot strike. This suggests that the hamstring selleck chemical muscle group is in a concentric contraction after the foot strike, in which a hamstring muscle strain injury is not likely to occur.45 The hamstring muscle length and EMG data demonstrated that hamstring muscles were in

eccentric contractions during the late swing phase before foot strike and late stance phase before takeoff.45 These data suggest that hamstring muscle strain injury may occur before foot strike and before takeoff. Two recent studies confirmed selleck compound the data in the previous study.45 Thelen et al.46

also found a hamstring muscle eccentric contraction during the late swing phase of treadmill sprinting, and suggested that the potential for hamstring muscle strain injury existed during the late swing phase. Their results, however, did not show a hamstring muscle eccentric contraction during the stance phase as Wood45 did. Yu et al.47 analyzed the biomechanics of ground sprinting, and also found that the hamstring was in eccentric contraction during the late swing phase as well as during the late stance phase as reported by Wood. Yu et al.47 suggested that hamstring muscles were at the risk for strain injury during the late stance phase as well as during the late swing phase. However, hamstrings may have higher risk for strain injury during the late swing phase than during the late stance phase because the lengths of the hamstring muscles were significantly longer during the late swing phase than

during the late stance phase.47 Understanding risk factors for hamstring strain injury is critical for developing prevention and rehabilitation strategies. Many risk factors for hamstring muscle strain injury have been identified in the literature, however, only a few of these are evidence-based while the majority are theory-based. These risk factors can be categorized as modifiable Mephenoxalone factors and non-modifiable factors.48 Modifiable risk factors include shortened optimum muscle length, lack of muscle flexibility, strength imbalance, insufficient warm-up, fatigue, low back injury, and increased muscle neural tension (Table 1). Non-modifiable risk factors include muscle compositions, age, race, and previous injuries (Table 1). Optimum muscle length is defined as the muscle length at which the muscle contractile element generates maximum force, which is similar to the muscle resting length.49 and 50 Brocket et al.

We provide evidence for a dichotomous functional organization of

We provide evidence for a dichotomous functional organization of GPe that is as compelling as that in striatum. Because all vertebrate brains likely have (homologs of) both striatum and pallidum (Stephenson-Jones et al., 2011), one intriguing possibility is that functional duality co-evolved across the striato-pallidal axis. Given our new findings, GPe circuits are realistically viewed not as a single, homogeneous entity but as two interacting systems that engage in a division of labor to orchestrate both normal and abnormal activities across PF-06463922 mw the entire basal

ganglia. Experimental procedures were carried out on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Charles River), and were conducted in accordance with the United Kingdom Animals

(Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986. See Supplemental Experimental Procedures for further details. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine SB431542 purchase (6-OHDA) lesions were induced in 190–305 g rats, as described previously (Mallet et al., 2008a and Mallet et al., 2008b). All animals received desipramine (25 mg/kg, i.p.; Sigma) to minimize the uptake of 6-OHDA by noradrenergic neurons (Schwarting and Huston, 1996b). Lesions were assessed after 6-OHDA injection by challenge with apomorphine (0.05 mg/kg, s.c.; Sigma) (Schwarting and Huston, 1996a). Electrophysiological recordings were carried out in the GPe ipsilateral to 6-OHDA lesions in anesthetized rats 21–45 days after surgery. Recording and labeling experiments were performed in 45 anesthetized 6-OHDA-lesioned rats (271–540 g at the time of recording). Anesthesia was maintained with urethane (1.3 g/kg, i.p.), and supplemental doses of ketamine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and xylazine (3 mg/kg, i.p.), as described previously (Mallet et al., 2008a and Mallet et al., 2008b). The epidural ECoG was recorded above the frontal (somatic sensory-motor) cortex (Mallet et al., 2008a). Extracellular recordings of single-unit activity in the GPe were made using glass electrodes (11–29 MΩ in situ; tip diameter ∼1.2 μm) containing 0.5 M NaCl solution and neurobiotin

(1.5% w/v; Vector Laboratories). Following electrophysiological through recordings, single neurons were juxtacellularly labeled with neurobiotin (Magill et al., 2001, Mallet et al., 2008a and Pinault, 1996). Seventy-nine individual GPe neurons were juxtacellularly labeled in this study. Parasagittal sections (50 μm) were cut from each perfusion-fixed brain and incubated overnight in Cy3-conjugated streptavidin. Sections containing neurobiotin-labeled neuronal somata (those marked with Cy3) were then isolated for molecular characterization by indirect immunofluorescence. All identified GPe neurons were tested for expression of parvalbumin (PV), and some were also tested for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and/or preproenkephalin (PPE).

When we expressed dominant-negative UAS-dGluRDN in both postsynap

When we expressed dominant-negative UAS-dGluRDN in both postsynaptic muscles of these mutants, the excessive miniature NT at both terminals was strongly inhibited ( Figure S7C). In both terminals, the aberrant number and size ratio of synaptic boutons were also suppressed ( Figures 7J, 7L, and 7M). In contrast, when UAS-dGluRDN was expressed only in muscle 6 of cpx mutants, miniature NT, bouton number, and bouton size index were only suppressed at the terminal on this muscle and not at the terminal on

muscle 7 ( selleck kinase inhibitor Figures 7K–7M and S7C). Together, these experiments demonstrated that the effect on synapse maturation of increasing or decreasing miniature neurotransmission is via a mechanism that acts locally at synaptic terminals. To determine the molecular mechanism through which miniature neurotransmission regulates bouton maturation, we next carried out a candidate mutant screen of molecules that were (1) linked to synapse morphological development and (2) likely to have localized activity at terminals. Among these candidates was Trio, a member of the evolutionarily conserved Dbl homology family of GEFs (Miller et al., 2013). trio mutants had previously been reported to have defective synaptic terminal growth ( Ball et al., 2010), and Trio has been linked to the local regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton

SCH 900776 manufacturer ( Miller et al., 2013). We confirmed that trio mutants had reduced numbers of synaptic boutons ( Ball et al., 2010) ( Figure S8A). We additionally found that trio mutants had reduced terminal area accompanied by large increase in the proportion

of small boutons ( Figures 8A, 8B, 8D, and 8E) very reminiscent of synaptic terminals when miniature NT is reduced ( Figure 8C). All of these trio mutant synaptic phenotypes were fully rescued by presynaptic expression of transgenic Trio (UAS-Trio) ( Figures 8D and 8E). When we examined the ultrastructure of the abundant small boutons in trio mutants, we found rudimentary T-bar structures ( Figure 8G) of reduced size similar to those observed in the small boutons of miniature NT mutants ( Figures 8H, S8C, and S8D). However, when we measured miniature NT in these mutants, we found it was unchanged compared to controls ( Figure S8E), consistent with previous reports ( Ball et al., 2010). This indicated that the synaptic terminal phenotypes Thymidine kinase in trio mutants did not originate from defective NT. However, the similarity of trio mutant synaptic morphology phenotypes to miniature NT mutant phenotypes suggested that Trio could be part of a molecular pathway triggered by miniature events. Pursuing this hypothesis, we next tested the genetic interaction of miniature NT mutants with trio mutants. We first examined if Trio is required for the terminal overgrowth and bouton size alteration of cpx mutants. Double null mutants of cpx and trio had similarly increased miniature NT to cpx mutants alone ( Figure S8F).

, 2009) leading to an investigation of swine trichinellosis from

, 2009) leading to an investigation of swine trichinellosis from December 2008 to April 2009 (Vu Thi et al., 2010). Vu Thi et al. (2010) found almost one fifth of pigs in the survey area had serological evidence of Trichinella infection as determined by the excretory–secretory (ES)-ELISA and 15% of these serologically reactive animals had evidence of muscle larvae. T. spiralis was the only species detected and the muscle burden

ranged from 0.04 to 0.38 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscle ( Vu Thi et al., 2010), indicating a relatively low burden of infection but still posing a risk for human disease. The disproportionate serological and muscle digestion results in this study were interpreted as being due to low sensitivity of muscle digestion or lack

of ES-ELISA specificity ( Vu Thi et al., 2010). Since 50 grams selleck products of muscle per animal was digested, it seems reasonable to assume that poor Smad inhibitor test specificity was the strongest controlling factor in a study environment where polyparasitism in the pig population is common. In Laos, a recent study of swine trichinellosis was conducted in four northern provinces, three bordering Vietnam in the northeast and one sharing a border with China in the north (Conlan et al., in preparation). Muscle digestion of tongue and diaphragm was the only method used and less than 2% of slaughter pigs were infected, ranging from zero to 4% for the four provinces. A subset of larvae were speciated and all identified as T. spiralis. Ten animals had 0.1–0.9 lpg, three animals had 1–10 lpg and two animals had >10 lpg, the highest recorded burden of infection was 69 lpg (Conlan et al., Thalidomide in preparation). A slaughterhouse survey in Cambodia in 2005 found a very low seroprevalence of swine trichinellosis (1.13%, 5/440) and there was no difference between intensively produced and free-range pigs (Sovyra, T., unpublished thesis, Chiang Mai University, Thailand and Frei University, Berlin, Germany). The majority of reports of trichinellosis arise from outbreaks in human populations (Pozio, 2007) and for the most part these have been discussed in detail elsewhere

(Pozio, 2001, Pozio, 2007, Kaewpitoon et al., 2008 and Odermatt et al., 2010). Community level surveys of trichinellosis in SE Asia specifically addressing prevalence and risk factors of exposure to this food-borne nematode are scarce. In part this is a consequence of the difficulty of interpreting serological data based on the ES-ELISA and the excessive cost of western blot analysis. However, a recent study has sought to investigate human trichinellosis at the community level in four provinces in northern Laos (Conlan et al., in preparation), including Oudomxay province where an outbreak in 2005 affected more than 600 people (Barennes et al., 2008). Almost one fifth of the survey population had antibodies to Trichinella detected by the ES-ELISA.

The results from our electrophysiological and morphological analy

The results from our electrophysiological and morphological analyses learn more strongly suggest that proper strength of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition onto the PC soma from molecular layer interneurons is crucial for CF synapse elimination from postnatal day 10 (P10) to around P16. Our results also suggest that the somatic inhibition influences the size of CF-induced Ca2+ transients and regulate Ca2+-dependent processes for the elimination of redundant CF inputs on the soma. To examine whether GABAergic transmission is reduced in the cerebellum of GAD67+/GFP mice, we recorded miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) from PCs. In control mice, the amplitude

of mIPSCs changed during the first three postnatal weeks (Figures 1A and 1B), reaching maximum at P7–P9 and decreasing gradually thereafter. In GAD67+/GFP mice, there was only a modest change in the amplitude of

mIPSCs during postnatal development (Figures 1A and 1B). Consequently, the amplitude of mIPSCs in GAD67+/GFP PCs was significantly smaller than that of control mice at P7–P9 (control: 183 ± 20.2 pA, n = 11; GAD67+/GFP: 91 ± 10.2 pA, n = 11; p < 0.001), P10–P12 (control: 130 ± 15.7 pA, n = 13; GAD67+/GFP: 86 ± 4.5 pA, n = 11; p = 0.022), and P13–P15 (control: 111 ± 17.6 pA, n = 7; GAD67+/GFP: 60 ± 5.1 pA, n = 7; p = 0.017) (Figure 1B). In contrast, the frequency of mIPSCs was not different between the two mouse strains except at P10–P12 when the frequency was significantly higher in GAD67+/GFP PCs (control: 5.2 ± 0.5 Hz, n = 13; GAD67+/GFP: selleck compound 8.9 ± 0.9 Hz, n = 11; p = 0.002) (Figure 1C). Since GABAergic signaling has been reported to regulate interneuron’s axonal branching and synapse formation in the visual cortex (Chattopadhyaya et al., 2007), we examined whether GABAergic synapse formation is affected in GAD67+/GFP mice. We measured the density of GABAergic terminals on the soma

and dendrite of PCs by double immunofluorescence GBA3 confocal microscopic analysis for vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) and the PC marker calbindin (see Figure S1 available online). We found no significant differences between control and GAD67+/GFP mice at P10–P12 (Figure S1). Therefore, the higher mIPSC frequency in GAD67+/GFP mice at P10–P12 is considered to result from functional change rather than increased density of GABAergic terminals. It has been reported that GABA elicits depolarization and induces Ca2+ transients in immature rat PCs (Eilers et al., 2001). To examine whether GABA excites or inhibits PCs during postnatal development in mice, we monitored PC’s spontaneous activity with the cell-attached configuration and assessed the effect of ionophoretically applied muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist (Figures 1D–1G).

The animals were euthanatized according

to Cardoso (2002)

The animals were euthanatized according

to Cardoso (2002). The survey was associated with the project entitled “Description Venetoclax purchase of the Biodiversity of the Helminth Community of Small Mammals in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul”, sponsored by the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz and the Earthwatch Institute. The capture and necropsy of the rodents were authorized by the Brazilian Institute of Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), the federal environmental agency, and were performed according to biosecurity procedures (license numbers CGFAU 009/2002, 197/2002 and 091/2004). Biosecurity techniques and individual safety equipment were used during all procedures. The collection of parasites from T. apereoides captured from the field did not retrieve any males. We, therefore, proceeded with an experimental infection, where both females and males could Autophagy inhibitor chemical structure be obtained. Fourteen gravid females of Trichuris thrichomysi n. sp. recovered from naturally infected T. apereoides specimens captured in Capitão Andrade municipality were cut open with a scalpel and the contents of uterus were emptied into Petri dishes. The eggs were washed twice in dechlorinated water and incubated at 28 ± 2 °C for 60 days. Development

of cultures was observed under a Zeiss ID 02 inverted microscope. After that, 50-μL aliquots were mounted between slides and coverslips to quantify the percentage of embryonated eggs. One thousand below embryonated eggs, in 0.5 mL dechlorinated water, were administered orally to laboratory-bred T. apereoides specimens aged 8–12 weeks. The rodents’ were necropsied after euthanasia in a CO2 chamber and their stools were examined and worms recovered.

The rodents were bred and the parasite life cycle was maintained throughout the identification period in the Laboratorio de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Silvestres e Reservatórios – IOC-FIOCRUZ. The whipworms were collected from the cecum of T. apereoides and T. pachyurus, washed in saline solution and fixed by immersion in hot AFA (2% glacial acetic acid, 3% formaldehyde and 95% ethanol). For light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) specimens were prepared following Mafra and Lanfredi (1998), with 10 sec of gold coating for FESEM. Drawings were made with the aid of a camera lucida attached to a Zeiss Standard 20 light microscope. SEM micrographs were taken with a Jeol JSM 5310 and FESEM was performed with a Jeol JSM 6340F. All measurements (mean ± standard deviation) are given in micrometers, except measurements indicated in millimeters (mm).

The final radius was chosen randomly from 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and 1

The final radius was chosen randomly from 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 of the full size. We identified the smallest final size at which the cocontraction was initiated and varied it slightly around that value to get a better estimate. Nerve cord, flexor, and extensor muscle activities selleck kinase inhibitor were recorded and transmitted wirelessly as described above. The extracellular activity of the nerve cords ipsi- and contralateral to the stimulated eye was recorded simultaneously in nine fixed locusts at l/|v| = 10–60 (in steps of 10), 80, 100, and 120 ms. Looming-evoked escape behaviors were studied in six locusts, before and after cutting one of

their nerve cords. Looming stimuli were presented to the eyes ipsi- and contralateral to the sectioned nerve cord at l/|v| = 40, 80, and 120 ms. Laser ablation allows the selective inactivation of a single neuron after filling it with a phototoxic dye (Miller and Selverston, 1979 and Jacobs and Miller, 1985). Animals were mounted ventral side up on a holder, and a hook electrode was implanted around one nerve cord between the pro- and mesothoracic ganglia; the other nerve cord was sectioned, and the cuticle was sealed back in place. The quality of the extracellular nerve cord recording

was then tested; laser ablation was only attempted when it was high (e.g., Figure S6A). Next, the locust head this website was tilted backward and a vertical incision was made in the neck skin, exposing the nerve cords running between the subesophageal and prothoracic ganglia. A small area of the intact nerve cord was desheathed with fine forceps. To achieve mechanical stability during intracellular recordings, we raised the nerve cord and secured it in place

with a pair of polyimide tubes placed under and at the boundary of the desheathed area (039-1; MicroLumen, Tampa, FL). Glass electrodes were pulled on a Brown-Flaming micropipette puller (P-97, Sutter Instrument Company, Novato, CA) with thin-wall capillaries with an outer diameter of 1.2 mm (WPI, Sarasota, FL). The tips of the electrodes were filled Levetiracetam with 4 μl of 10 mM 6-carboxy-fluorescein (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and the shafts with 6 μl of a 2 M KAc, 0.5 m KCl solution. The electrode resistances varied between 45 and 50 MΩ. The DCMD axon is located dorsomedially in the nerve cord and was identified based on the one-to-one correspondence with the largest spikes in the extracellular recording. It was filled by electrophoresis for 12 min with currents between −1 and −12 nA. The filling was monitored visually by means of a fluorescence module attached to a stereomicroscope. After filling, the intracellular electrode was removed and the saline level was lowered to minimize the loss of laser power because of light scattering. Laser light was directed onto the axon while the activity of the DCMD was monitored on the extracellular electrode to confirm its eventual laser ablation, typically after 2–5 min.

This study was not without limitations The survey was only 10 qu

This study was not without limitations. The survey was only 10 questions in length due to cost of additional questions. Therefore, we check details chose to focus our questions on barefoot practices and injury rather than demographic information. As subjects had to be able to answer all 10 questions to be included, the study was somewhat biased against those who had quickly failed at barefoot running. The study was also subject to recall bias as results were based upon subject recall. While no cause and effect relationship can be drawn from a survey, a number of interesting trends were revealed. First, the majority of

respondents in this survey indicated that they developed no new injuries after starting a barefoot running regimen. Second, those that did primarily experienced foot and ankle injuries indicating the need to progress slowly so that the new areas of loading can adapt. Finally, the survey results indicated that majority of barefoot runners had previous running injuries that resolved after starting barefoot running programs. “
“Foot strikes during running are typically classified as either (1) rearfoot, in which initial contact is made somewhere on the heel or rear one-third of the foot; (2) midfoot, in which the heel and the region below the fifth metatarsal contact simultaneously;

or (3) forefoot, in which initial contact is made on the front half of the foot, after which heel contact TGF-beta inhibitor typically follows shortly thereafter.1 Previous research on foot strike patterns in road races indicates that the majority of shod distance runners are rearfoot strikers, Edoxaban with percentages

ranging from 74.9% of runners in an elite half-marathon race,1 to 81% of recreational runners in a 10-km race,2 to over 90% of recreational runners in marathon distance events3 and 4 (Table 1). Available research suggests that multiple factors influence the type of foot strike exhibited by a given runner under a given set of conditions. For example, several race studies have found that the percentage of non-heel striking runners increased among faster runners,1, 2, 4 and 5 suggesting a speed effect. Running surface has also been shown to influence foot strike. Nigg6 reports data from an unpublished thesis7 showing that barefoot runners are more likely to forefoot strike on asphalt (76.7% forefoot, 23.3% rearfoot), and rearfoot strike on grass (45.7% forefoot, 54.3% rearfoot). Gruber et al.8 found that only 20% of habitually shod runners adopted a midfoot or forefoot strike when running barefoot on a soft surface, versus 65% adopting a midfoot or forefoot strike when running barefoot on a hard surface. Of all potential factors contributing to variation in foot strike type, the role of footwear has perhaps been the subject of most debate and research in recent years.

This work suggests that memory consolidation is a dynamic process

This work suggests that memory consolidation is a dynamic process that is not unique to the encoding of new memory. In fact, memory retrieval appears to “deconsolidate” established memory traces returning them to a labile and destabilized state that requires protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation for long-term retention. The mechanisms of deconsolidation are EX527 not known, and it is unclear whether memory reactivation actually reverses the outcome of consolidation or renders the consolidated trace labile in some other way. In either case, interfering with

reconsolidation after retrieval leads to memory loss: the deconsolidated memory fails to stabilize and decays much as short-term memory decays in the absence of consolidation to long-term memory (Figure 3). Although reconsolidation has been described in many memory systems, it is bounded (Nader, 2006). For example, the sensitivity of reactivated memories to protein synthesis inhibitors is related to many factors including the age

and strength of the memory (Milekic and selleck kinase inhibitor Alberini, 2002 and Wang et al., 2009). In addition, not all forms of memory appear to undergo protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation (Nader and Hardt, 2009). Nonetheless, the sensitivity of long-term fear memories to retrieval-based manipulations provides a much more tractable time window for therapeutic intervention insofar patients with anxiety disorders often seek treatment long after trauma. As a consequence,

several groups have attempted to disrupt consolidated fear memories by interfering nearly with reconsolidation processes after reactivation. Because there is strong interest in developing effective interventions for patients with anxiety disorders, the focus has been on developing interventions that can be safely administered to humans. For example, in rats systemic administration of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, disrupts the reconsolidation of fear memories under some conditions (Debiec and Ledoux, 2004 and Muravieva and Alberini, 2010). A pair of studies in humans similarly suggests that propranolol administration can influence the reconsolidation of fear memory. In one report (Kindt et al., 2009), healthy subjects underwent a fear-potentiated startle conditioning procedure followed by oral propranolol administration and memory reactivation the day after conditioning. Interestingly, propranolol disrupted the retention of one index of fear memory (i.e., the conditioned acoustic startle response), but spared declarative memory of the CS-US relationship (i.e., shock expectancy). This effect was not due to propranolol administration alone, insofar as administering propranolol without reactivating the memory did not dampen startle.