(c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Neuregulin-1 b

(c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neuregulin-1 beta (NRG-1 beta) is a growth factor with potent neuroprotective capacity. Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and an indicator of Dactolisib ic50 neuronal survival in vitro. The purpose of present study is to evaluate the effects of NRG-1 beta on

GAP-43 expression in DRG neurons with excitotoxicity induced by glutamate (Glu) in vitro. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways involved in these effects were also determined. Embryonic rat DRG neurons were treated with Glu in the absence or presence of NRG-1 beta and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and/or

ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. After that, GAP-43 mRNA and GAP-43 protein levels were analyzed by real time-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. GAP-43 expression in situ was determined by immunofluorescent labeling. The results showed that the decreased GAP-43 levels induced Y27632 by Glu could be partially reversed by the presence of NRG-1 beta. Inhibitors (LY294002, PD98059),either alone or in combination blocked the effects of NRG-1 beta. These data provide new insights of the actions of NRG-1 beta in sensory neurons. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: The main aims of this study were to construct a bivalent subunit vaccine containing flagellin flaA gene and flagellin flaB gene from Vibrio alginolyticus strain HY9901 and to explore the potential application of the fusion protein FlaA-(G4S)3-FlaB as a vaccine candidate for red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus). Methods and Results: Flagellin gene flaA and flaB of V.similar to alginolyticus were linked by gene SOEing (gene splicing by overlap extension) technology. The expression of the fusion gene flaA-(G4S)3-flaB in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was confirmed

by SDS-PAGE. Western blot analysis showed that the fusion protein FlaA-(G4S)3-FlaB, which was purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA resin, had positive reaction with mouse anti-FlaA serum and mouse anti-FlaB serum, respectively. The immunoprotection of FlaA-(G4S)3-FlaB as a bivalent subunit vaccine was investigated in red snapper model by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Ceramide glucosyltransferase and challenge test. Red snapper vaccinated with FlaA-(G4S)3-FlaB produced specific antibodies and were highly resistant to infection by virulent V.similar to alginolyticus. Conclusions: The fusion gene flaA-(G4S)3-flaB from V.similar to alginolyticus strain HY9901 was cloned by gene SOEing and was expressed in E similar to coli. This fusion protein FlaA-(G4S)3-FlaB is a good protective antigen of V.similar to alginolyticus and should be considered as an effective vaccine candidate against infection by V.similar to alginolyticus in red snapper.

and disability Linear path model analyses examined the contributi

and disability Linear path model analyses examined the contributions of chest pain, trait anxiety, and catastrophizing to physical

disability. psychosocial disability, and disability in work, home, and recreational activities Results: Path models accounted for a significant amount of the variability in disability scales (R(2) = 0.35 to 0.52) Chest pain and anxiety accounted for 46% of the variance in pain catastrophizing Both chest pain (beta = 0.18, Sobel test Z = 2.58 p < .01) and trait anxiety (beta = 0.14, Sobel test Z = 2.11 p < 05) demonstrated significant indirect relationship.,; with physical disability

via pain catastrophizing Chest pain CRT0066101 datasheet demonstrated a significant indirect relationship with psychosocial disability via pain catastrophizing (beta = 0.12, Sobel test Z = 1 96, p = 05) After controlling for the effects of chest pain and anxiety, pain catastrophizing was no longer related to disability in work, home, and recreational activities. Conclusions: Chest pain and anxiety were directly related to greater disability and indirectly related to physical and psychosocial disability via pain catastrophizing Efforts to improve functioning in patients with NCCP should consider addressing pain catastrophizing”
“The purpose of

this study was to Molecular motor examine ML323 in vitro whether the N400 is affected by the semantic richness of associated neighboring word members or by the density of the orthographic syllable neighborhood. Another purpose of this study was to investigate the source of the different LPC in respect to the semantic richness. To do so, the density of the syllable neighborhood and the size of the morphological family of a word were orthogonally manipulated. ERPs from 24 participants were collected during a go/no-go semantic categorization task. The results showed that the N400 effect was mainly influenced by the density of the syllable neighborhood rather than by the morphological family size. The results also showed that words with a larger morphological family size generate significantly larger LPC than words with a smaller morphological family size. The present study did not support the assumption that the main source of the N400 effect is the semantic richness of the associated neighbors. The present results suggest that the N400 is more sensitive to the density of the syllable neighborhood and LPC is sensitive to the density of the semantic neighborhood reflected by the morphological family size. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A systematic review of studies reporting structural brain magneti

A systematic review of studies reporting structural brain magnetic resonance

imaging (MRI) measures: (1) selleck products directly in association with antipsychotic use; and (2) in patients receiving lifetime treatment with antipsychotics in comparison with drug-naive patients or healthy controls. We searched Medline and EMBASE databases using the medical subject heading terms: ‘antipsychotics’ AND ‘brain’ AND (MRI NOT functional). The search included studies published up to 31 January 2007. Wherever possible, we reported the effect size of the difference observed.

Results. Thirty-three studies met our inclusion criteria. The results suggest that antipsychotics act regionally rather than globally on the brain. These volumetric changes are of a greater magnitude in association with typical than with atypical antipsychotic use. Indeed, there is evidence of a specific effect of antipsychotic type on the basal ganglia, with

typicals specifically increasing the volume of these structures. Differential effects of antipsychotic type may also be present on the thalamus and the cortex, but data on these and other brain areas are more equivocal.

Conclusions. Antipsychotic treatment potentially contributes to the brain structural changes observed in psychosis. Future research should take into account these potential effects, and use adequate sample sizes, to allow improved DZNeP cell line interpretation of neuroimaging findings in these disorders.”
“Background Daily aspirin reduces the long-term risk of death due to cancer. However, the short-term effect is less certain, especially in women, effects on cancer incidence are largely unknown, and the time course of risk and benefit in

primary prevention is unclear. We studied cancer deaths in all trials of daily aspirin versus control and the time course of effects of low-dose aspirin on cancer incidence and other outcomes in trials in primary prevention.

Methods We studied individual patient data from randomised trials of daily aspirin versus no aspirin in prevention of vascular events. Death Glutamate dehydrogenase due to cancer, all non-vascular death, vascular death, and all deaths were assessed in all eligible trials. In trials of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention, we also established the time course of effects on incident cancer, major vascular events, and major extracranial bleeds, with stratification by age, sex, and smoking status.

Results Allocation to aspirin reduced cancer deaths (562 vs 664 deaths; odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.96, p=0.008; 34 trials, 69 224 participants), particularly from 5 years onwards (92 vs 145; OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.49-0.82, p=0.0005), resulting in fewer non-vascular deaths overall (1021 vs 1173; OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.96, p=0.003; 51 trials, 77 549 participants). In trials in primary prevention, the reduction in non-vascular deaths accounted for 87 (91%) of 96 deaths prevented.

We used single-cell reverse transcription and polymerase chain re

We used single-cell reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine whether dorsomedial pontine cells with projections to the mMRF express mRNA for selected membrane receptors that mediate modulatory influences on REM sleep. Fluorescein (FITC)-labeled latex microspheres were microinjected into the mMRF of 26-34-day-old rats under pentobarbital anesthesia. After 5-6 days, rats were sacrificed, pontine slices were obtained and neurons were dissociated from 400 to 600 mu m micropunches extracted from dorsomedial pontine

reticular formation. We found that 32 out of 51 FITC-labeled cells tested (63 C646 cost +/- 7% (SE)) contained the orexin type I receptor (ORX1r) mRNA, 27 out of 73 (37 +/- 6%) contained the adrenergic alpha(2A) receptor (alpha(2A)r) RNA, and 6 out of 31 (19 7%) contained both mRNAs. The percentage of cells positive for the ORX1r mRNA was significantly lower (p < 0.04) for the dorsomedial pontine cells that were not retrogradely labeled from the mMRF (32 +/- 11 %), whereas alpha(2A)r

mRNA was present in a similar percentage of FITC-labeled and unlabeled neurons. Our data suggest that ORX and adrenergic pathways converge on a subpopulation of cells of the pontine REM sleep-triggering region that have descending Nutlin-3a chemical structure projections to the medullary region important for the motor control during REM sleep. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is mediated by several viral envelope glycoproteins. We have assessed gp110′s functions during the virus life cycle using a mutant that lacks BALF4 (Delta BALF4). Exposure of various cell lines and primary cell samples of epithelial or lymphoid lineages to the Delta BALF4 mutant failed to establish stable infections. The Delta BALF4 virus, however, did not differ from wild-type EBV in its ability to bind and become internalized into primary B cells, in which it elicited a potent T-cell-specific immune reaction against virion constituents. These findings show that Delta BALF4 viruses can reach the endosome-lysosome compartment and dovetail nicely with

the previously identified contribution of gp110 to virus-cell fusion. Other essential steps of the 5-Fluoracil mouse virus life cycle were unaffected in the viral mutant; DNA lytic replication and viral titers were not altered in the absence of gp110, and Delta BALF4 viruses complemented in trans transformed infected B cells with an efficiency indistinguishable from that observed with wild-type viruses. All of the steps of virus maturation could be observed in lytically induced 293/Delta BALF4 cells. Induction of lymphoblastoid cells generated with transiently complemented Delta BALF4 virus led to the production of rare mature virions. We therefore infer that gp110 is not required for virus maturation and egress in 293 cells or in B cells.

We report hybrid structure-based virtual screening to identify sm

We report hybrid structure-based virtual screening to identify small molecules with the potential to interact with the N-terminal domain (NTD) of HIV-1 CA and disrupt early, preintegration steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle. The small molecule 4,4′-[dibenzo[b,d]furan-2,8-diylbis(5-phenyl-1H-imidazole-4,2-diyl)]dibenzoic acid (CK026), which had anti-HIV-1 activity in single- and multiple-round infections but failed to inhibit viral replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), was identified. Three analogues of CK026

with reduced size and better drug-like properties were synthesized and assessed. Compound I-XW-053 (4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzoic acid) retained all of the YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 mw antiviral activity of the parental compound and inhibited the replication of a diverse panel of primary HIV-1 isolates in PBMCs, while displaying no appreciable cytotoxicity. This antiviral activity was specific to HIV-1, as I-XW-053 displayed no effect on the replication of SIV or

against a panel of nonretroviruses. Direct interaction of I-XW-053 was quantified with wild-type and Idasanutlin solubility dmso mutant CA protein using surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. Mutation of Ile37 and Arg173, which are required for interaction with compound I-XW-053, crippled the virus at an early, preintegration step. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that treatment with I-XW-053 inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription in multiple cell types, indirectly pointing to dysfunction in the uncoating process.

In summary, we have identified a CAs-pecific compound that targets and inhibits a novel region in the NTD-NTD interface, affects uncoating, and possesses broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity.”
“Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils as an alternative treatment for medical purposes. Despite the lack of sufficient scientific proof, it is considered a holistic complementary therapy employed to enhance comfort and decrease distress. Citrus fragrances have been particularly used by aromatherapists for the treatment of anxiety symptoms. Based on this claim, the present study investigated the effects DOK2 of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) essential oil on Wistar, male rats evaluated in the elevated plus-maze followed by the light/dark paradigm. The animals were exposed to the orange aroma (100, 200 or 400 mu l) for 5 min while in a Plexiglas chamber and were then immediately submitted to the behavioural tests. At all doses, C. sinensis oil demonstrated anxiolytic activity in at least one of the tests and, at the highest dose, it presented significant effects in both animal models, as indicated by increased exploration of the open arms of the elevated plus-maze (time: p = 0.004: entries: p = 0.044) and of the lit chamber of the light/dark paradigm (time: p = 0.030).

We explored the sensitivity of our data to model specification an

We explored the sensitivity of our data to model specification and show the out-of-sample predictive validity of our methods.

Findings We estimated that there were 342 900 (uncertainty interval 302 100-394 300) maternal deaths worldwide in 2008, down Elafibranor in vivo from 526 300 (446 400-629 600) in 1980. The global MMR decreased from 422 (358-505) in 1980 to 320 (272-388)

in 1990, and was 251 (221-289) per 100 000 livebirths in 2008. The yearly rate of decline of the global MMR since 1990 was 1.3% (1.0-1.5). During 1990-2008, rates of yearly decline in the MMR varied between countries, from 8.8% (8.7-14.1) in the Maldives to an increase of 5.5% (5.2-5.6) in Zimbabwe. More than 50% of all maternal deaths were in only six

countries in 2008 (India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo). In the absence of HIV, there would have been 281 500 (243 900-327 900) maternal deaths worldwide in 2008.

Interpretation Substantial, albeit varied, progress has been made towards MDG 5. Although only 23 countries are on track to achieve a 75% decrease in MMR by 2015, countries such as Egypt, China, Ivacaftor concentration Ecuador, and Bolivia have been achieving accelerated progress.”
“Ultraviolet B light (UVB) activates nitric oxide synthase(s) (NOSs) and nitric oxide (No(center dot)) production, which plays a role in regulation of apoptosis. However, the role of NO in UVB-induced apoptosis remains controversial. In this study, we analyzed expression and activation of constitutive NOSs (cNOSs) and their roles in UV-induced apoptosis of HaCaT keratinocytes. Our data showed that the expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) was increased while endothelial NOS (eNOS) was uncoupled in the early phase (0-6 h) post-UVB. The expression of both cNOSs peaked at 12 h post-UVB and NO was transiently elevated with 30 min and then steadily rose from 6 to 18 h post-UVB. The expression of iNOS was detected at 6 h post-UVB

and then sturdily increased. Inhibition of cNOSs with I.-NAME reduced the inducibility of NO in the early and late phases of irradiation. Along Loperamide with the eNOS uncoupling, an increased level of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) was detected in the early phase, but not in the late phase post-UVB. Inhibition of cNOSs reduced the production of ONOO(-) in the early time, but led to an increase of ONOO(-) in the late time after UVB-irradiation. The results indicate that cNOSs regulate NO center dot/ONOO(-) imbalance after UVB-irradiation. Our data suggested that the activation of cNOSs in the early phase post-UVB leads to NO center dot/ONOO(-) imbalance and promotes apoptosis via a caspase 3-independent pathway. The elevation of NO in the late phase of UVB-irradiation is mainly produced by inducible NOS (iNOS).

Boosting by electroporation significantly enhanced p DOM-PASD1(1

Boosting by electroporation significantly enhanced p. DOM-PASD1(1). Only p. DOMPASD1(1) induced cytotoxic T-lymphocytes Epigenetics inhibitor (CTLs) were able to lyse human MM target cells expressing endogenous antigen. The p. DOM-PASD1FL vaccine predominantly induced strong PASD1(1) over PASD1(2) T-cell immune responses, indicative of immunodominance. Importantly, p. DOM-PASD1FL generated immune-mediating killing of native chimeric MM cells, in the absence of exogenous added peptide, implicating PASD1(1) specific CTLs. These data demonstrate that PASD1-derived epitopes are both efficiently and selectively

processed and presented by native human MM cells. Notably, they permit the use of PASD1-encoding DNA vaccine therapy in a clinical setting. Leukemia (2010) 24, 1951-1959; doi:10.1038/leu.2010.196; published online 23 September 2010″
“Personality is associated with specific emotion regulation styles presumably linked with unique brain activity patterns. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 26 individuals, the neural responses to threatening selleck inhibitor (fearful and angry) facial and bodily expressions were investigated in relation to negative affectivity

and social inhibition. A negative correlation was observed between negative affectivity and activation of the amygdala, fusiform gyrus, insula and hippocampus. Increased activation following threatening stimuli was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction and right extrastriate body area correlating with more social inhibition traits. Interestingly, the orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus

(Brodmann area 45) and temporal pole correlated negatively with negative affectivity and positively with social inhibition. Whereas individuals with increased negative affectivity tend to de-activate the core emotion system, socially inhibited people tend to over-activate a broad cortical network. Our findings demonstrate effects of personality traits on the neural coding of threatening signals. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The ability to accurately localize both tactile and painful sensations on the body is one of the most important functions of the somatosensory system. Most accounts of localization refer to the systematic spatial relation between skin receptors and cortical neurons. The topographic organization of somatosensory neurons in the brain provides a map of the sensory surface. However, systematic distortions in perceptual localization tasks suggest that localizing a somatosensory stimulus involves more than simply identifying specific active neural populations within a somatotopic map. Thus, perceptual localization may depend on both afferent inputs and other unknown factors. In four experiments, we investigated whether localization biases vary according to the specific skin regions and subset of afferent fibers stimulated. We represented localization errors as a ‘perceptual map’ of skin locations.

However, in rats trained to self-administer cocaine, systemic adm

However, in rats trained to self-administer cocaine, systemic administration of MK-801 just prior to either of two different types of reactivation sessions had no effect on subsequent cocaine-primed reinstatement of lever-pressing behavior. Thus, systemic administration of MK-801 disrupted the reconsolidation of a cocaine-associated memory for CPP but not for self-administration. These findings suggest that cocaine-CPP and self-administration

do not use similar neurochemical processes to disrupt reconsolidation or that cocaine-associated memories in self-administering rats do not undergo reconsolidation, as assessed by lever-pressing behavior under cocaine reinstatement conditions.”
“Functional evidence Selleck KU-57788 suggests that neuronal enriched endosomal protein of 21 kDa (NEEP21) takes part in facilitating transport of AMPA receptors (AMPAR) in the synapse. To explore the anatomical basis for a role in this synaptic trafficking, we investigated the ultrastructural localization of NEEP21 in rodent brain. Using immunogold electron microscopy, we show that NEEP21 is colocalized with the AMPAR subunits GIuR2/3 in postsynaptic spines. Quantitative analysis of gold particle distribution along an axis perpendicular

to the postsynaptic specialization SCH727965 in vitro indicated that NEEP21 occurs in the postsynaptic membrane but also in the interior of the spines. NEEP21 positive endosomes/multivesicular bodies were found throughout cell bodies Metalloexopeptidase and dendrites. In light microscopical preparations, the NEEP21 antibody produced a labeling pattern in the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum that mimicked that

of GluR2/3 and not that of GluR1 or 4. Our findings are consistent with a role for NEEP21 in facilitating vesicular transport of GluR2 between intracellular compartments and the postsynaptic plasma membrane. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline availability significantly altered the contextual control of these learned behaviors. Both control and choline-deprived rats exhibited context specificity of conditioned excitation as exhibited by a loss in responding when tested in an alternate context after conditioning; in contrast, choline-supplemented rats showed no such effect. When switched to a different context following extinction, however, both choline-supplemented and control rats showed substantial contextual control of responding, whereas choline-deficient rats did not.

20; p = 0 003) alpha-Syn may play a pathophysiological role in d

20; p = 0.003). alpha-Syn may play a pathophysiological role in depressive symptoms associated with eating disorders. Further investigations in patients with depression as a sole diagnosis are needed to support its role in the pathogenesis of major depression. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.”
“In this report we describe a case of leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava involving the renal veins. The abdominal computed tomography scan showed a tumor in

the infrahepatic portion GSK2126458 of the inferior vena cava and the confluence of the renal veins. After resection of the tumor, venous reconstruction involved the replacement of the inferior vena cava with a prosthetic graft and the implantation of the right renal vein into the portal vein. The left renal vein was ligated distally, with preservation of collateral pathways. To our knowledge, no other reports of such venous reconstruction have been published. After a follow-up of 30 months, the patient has shown no further symptoms, and the abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrates patency of the renal portal anastomosis. Tests indicated normal renal and hepatic function, suggesting good tolerance of

the renal portal anastomosis. We believe that the technique described buy SRT1720 in this report should be adopted routinely for tumors located in the renal veins, provided complete resection of the tumor with a comfortable resection

margin is possible.”
“Aims: The aim was to measure the prefrontal cortical activity involved in shifting spatial attention to visual stimuli in the left or right visual field using near-infrared spectroscopy. Methods: Eleven participants performed a simple vigilance task, an endogenous attention task and an exogenous attention task. In the endogenous task, the left or the right side of the center diamond brightened, indicating the side for subsequent target appearance (controlled shift filipin of attention). In the exogenous task, the peripheral squares brightened, indicating the appearance of target in those squares ( reflexive shift of attention). Results: Stimuli at validly cued locations were responded to faster than stimuli at invalidly cued locations. Increases in oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) were observed in the right prefrontal cortex throughout the 3 tasks, and in the left prefrontal cortex during the vigilance and the exogenous tasks. In the exogenous task, marked decreases in oxy-Hb were observed in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: These results suggest that the left and the right prefrontal cortices mediate distinct cognitive processes during the performance of visuospatial attentional tasks. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) enzyme is involved in the oxidative metabolism of dopamine.

(C) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Time is in imp

(C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Time is in important parameter in behaviour especially when synchronization with external events is required To evaluate the nature of the association between perception and action timing this study Introduced pitch accented

tones during performance of a sensorimotor tapping task Furthermore regularity of the pacing cues was modified by small (subliminal) or large (conscious) timing perturbations A global analysis across the intervals showed that see more repeated accented tones Increased the tap-tone asynchrony in the regular (control) and Irregular (subliminal) trials but not in the irregular trials with awareness of the perturbations Asynchrony variability demonstrated no effect of accentuation in the regular and subliminal irregular trials whereas It Increased in the conscious Irregular Eltanexor research buy trials A local analysis of the interval, showed that pitch accentuation lengthened the duration of the tapping responses but only in the irregular trials with large timing perturbations These data underline that

common timing processes are automatically engaged for perception and action although this arrangement can be overturned by cognitive Intervention Overall the findings highlight a flexible association between perception

and action timing within a functional information processing framework (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved”
“A new rapid diagnostic test for detection of influenza A virus was evaluated with four sets of experiments: first, a comparison with a commercial diagnostic kit against a panel of virus strains was conducted; second, the kit was tested against a collection of 40 strains of influenza Phospholipase D1 A virus isolated from five different host species and 26 strains of other respiratory viruses used as controls; third, the kit was tested against specimens collected in the field obtained from human and chicken; and fourth, the kit was tested against the novel pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 clinical specimens obtained from admitted to hospital patients. The test kit displayed a sensitivity of 88% for both human specimens and avian specimens. The corresponding specificity was 99.3% for human specimens and 96.5% for avian specimens. This test kit may be useful for rapid diagnosis of influenza A virus. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.