2000) This

is followed by the formation of diacetylene,

2000). This

is followed by the formation of diacetylene, triacetylene, and benzene (Cernicharo et al. 2001). In the following evolutionary stage (called the proto-planetary nebulae phase), the first spectral signatures of AG-881 aromatic compounds appear. The 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm aromatic stretching and bending modes first make their appearance during the proto-planetary nebulae phase, and are found to become stronger in the subsequent planetary nebulae (Kwok 2000) phase (Fig. 1). These aromatic features are accompanied by aliphatic features at 3.4 and 6.9 μm find more in the spectra of proto-planetary nebulae. The detection of out-of-plane C-H bending modes at 12.1, 12.4, and 13.3 μm suggests that the aromatic rings are not all connected to each other and there are many exposed edges of the rings (Kwok et al. 1999). Also present in the spectra of proto-planetary nebulae are broad plateau emission features at 8 and 12 μm which are due to collections of in-plane and out-of-plane bending modes of aliphatic chains (Kwok et al. 2001). Fig. 1 Infrared Space Observatory spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC 7027 superimposed on the Hubble Space Telescope image of the object. The aromatic infrared

bands (AIB) are marked in green. The identifications of these bands are given in the legend. The lines labeled in purple are atomic lines. The strengths of the AIBs show that aromatic click here compounds are being produced in large quantities These observations suggest that even under the extremely selleck chemical low density environment of the circumstellar envelopes, complex organics can be synthesized. One possible scenario is that

starting from acetylene, these linear molecules bend to form benzene, and all kinds of aliphatic chains get attached to the rings. The aromatic rings grow in size, possibly as the result of photochemistry. Since we know the evolutionary and dynamical timescales of the AGB (~104 yr), proto-planetary nebulae (~103 yr), and planetary nebulae (~104 yr) stages, these time scales constrains the chemical timescales that the synthesis must take place. Circumstellar molecular synthesis is therefore extremely efficient (Kwok 2004). It is interesting to note that these spectral characteristics resemble the infrared spectra seen in coal (Guillois et al. 1996), kerogen (Papoular 2001), soot (Pino et al. 2008), and petroleum (Cataldo et al. 2004). What all these compounds have in common is that they are all disorganized organic matter with mixed sp2/sp3 structures. While coal, kerogen and petroleum are remnants of life on Earth, the carbonaceous grains produced by stars condensed directly from the gas phase (similar to the formation process of soot) and are probably amorphous nanoparticles with a few aromatic islands connected by aliphatic chains (Kwok and Zhang 2011).

European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Reproduction 199

European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Reproduction 1999, 84:111–113.CrossRef 6. O’Brien J, Buckley LY2874455 O, Munk PL, Torreggiani WC: An unusual case of elevated liver enzymes. Eur

Radiol 2007, 17:289–291.CrossRefPubMed 7. Gliemroth J, Knopp U, Kehler U, Felberbaum R, Nowak G: HELLP syndrome with haemoglobin vasospasm. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2000, 7:59–62.CrossRefPubMed 8. Abraham K, Kenneally M, Dorman AM, Walshe J: Pathogenesis of acute renal failure associated with the HELLP syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2003, 108:99–102.CrossRef 9. Rademaker L: Spontaneous rupture of the Geneticin liver during pregnancy. Ann Surg 1993, 118:396–401.CrossRef 10. Barton JR, Baha SM: Hepatic Imaging in HELLP syndrome. Am J Obstet see more Gynecol 1996.,174(6): 11. Reck T, Bussenius-Kammerer M, Ott R, Muller V, Beinder E, Hohenberger W: Surgical treatment of HELLP syndrome-associated liver rupture – an update. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology 2001, 99:57–65.CrossRef 12. Merchant SH, Mathew P, Vanderjagt TJ, Howdieshell TR, Crookston KP: Recombinant factor

VIIa in management of spontaneous subcapsular liver haematoma associated with pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol 2004,103(5 Pt 2):1055–1058. 13. Shrivastava VK, Imagawa D, Wing DA: Argon beam coagulator for treatment of hepatic rupture with HELLP syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2006,107(2 Pt 2):525–526.CrossRefPubMed 14. Strate T, Broering DC, Bloechle C, Henschen S, Pothmann W, Hoffmann S, Izbicki JR, Rogiers X: Orthotopic liver transplantation for complicated HELLP syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2000,264(2):108–111.CrossRefPubMed 15. Shames BD, Fernandez LA, Sollinger HW, Chin LT, D’Alessandro AM, Knechtle SJ,

Lucey MR, Hafez R, Musat AI, Kalayoglu M: Liver transplantation for HELLP syndrome. Liver Transpl 2005,11(2):224–228.CrossRefPubMed 16. Pliego-Pérez AR, Zavala-Soto JO, Rodríguez-Ballesteros R, Martínez-Herrera FJ, Buspirone HCl Porras-Jiménez A: Rotura hepática espontánea durante el embarazo. Serie de cuatro casos y revisión de la literature médica. Ginecol Obstet Mex 2006, 74:224–231.PubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions JK and DJR conceived of the study, carried out a detailed literature review, collected and presented the pertinent data. WOK and NOB participated in the study design and coordination and helped to draft the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Appendicectomy is amongst the commonest acute surgical operation of intermediate nature, which if not treated in a timely manner could be life-threatening.

Mean values were compared using the student-T test Survival curv

Mean values were compared using the student-T test. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and tested for significance using the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate relative risks were calculated using Cox proportional hazards

regression. Statistical analyses were performed using NCSS software. All tests were two-tailed, and p < 0.05 was considered to selleck screening library be significant. Results Expression levels of p53 ranged from 0% to 70% of immunostained nuclei with a mean expression value of 11% (median = 5%) (Figure 1 and 2). Using this mean value as cut-off to distinguish high and low expressing tumors, staining was considered high in 11 (30.5%) out of 36 tumors in our series (similar results were obtained using as cut-off the median value). P53 expression levels were only related to disease stage with higher p53 levels in higher stage disease (p = 0.02) but lack of any significant association with HER2 status, other clinic-pathologic parameters (age, ER and PgR status, Ki67 and tumor grading) or docetaxel response (Table 2). Even comparing mean p53 expression levels between responders this website vs not-responders patients we did not find any significant difference (not shown) and mean TTP (8.6 ± 7.0 vs 9.2 ± 11.9 months; p = ns) and OS (21.6 ± 13.0 vs 19.8 ± 10.2 months;

p = ns) did not differ between low and high p53 groups. Morever, no significant relation with survival parameters was observed for p53 at Kaplan-Meier analysis. Figure 1 Immunohistochemical

positive staining of p53 in a representative case of high-grade (G3) ductal carcinoma. Immunostaining shows a clear and wide nuclear staining in an high grade (G3) invasive ductal carcinoma. buy Epacadostat Original magnifications: ×100 (inset ×250). Figure 2 p53 Chloroambucil immunohistochemical negative staining in a grade 2 ductal carcinoma. The wide majority of nuclei showed no staining with the exception of one clear positive nucleus (arrow) in the upper left corner. Original magnifications: ×100 (inset ×250). Table 2 p53 expression in relation to main tumor characteristics and treatment response   p53 expression   Total Low High p value Age            < 55 yrs 18 13 5 n.s.    ≥55 yrs 18 12 6   ER expression            Negative 14 8 6 n.s.    Positive 22 17 5   PgR expression            Negative 13 9 4 n.s.    Positive 23 16 7   Grading #            G2 21 17 4 n.s.    G3 15 8 7   Stage*°            I-IIA 17 15 2 0.02    IIB-III 16 7 9   HER2            Negative”" 27 21 6 n.s.    Positive”" 9 4 5   Ki67            Negative 22 15 7 n.s.    Positive 14 10 4   Treatment response            CR+PR 15 11 4 n.s.    SD+PD 21 14 7   n.s. = not significant; CR = complete response; PR = partial response; SD = stable disease; PD = disease progression. # According to Elston and Ellis classification (Ref. 31). *According to UICC-TNM classification of malignant tumours, sixth edition 2002 (Ref. 30).

They reported no cosmetic problems in stapling group [10] In lit

They reported no cosmetic problems in stapling group [10]. In literature there are plenty of studies on application time of these techniques. Hock et al. compared suturing and hair apposition techniques with respect to application time and found that hair apposition

technique Nutlin-3a concentration was applied in a shorter time than other technique [7]. Kanegaye et al. reported that stapling technique was applied in a shorter time compared to suturing in pediatric patients with scalp laceration [10]. In a surgical study stapling and suturing techniques used in the treatment of long lacerations were compared in terms of application times. Stapling technique was reported to be associated with five-to-seven times shorter times compared with the suturing technique [12–15]. Karaduman et al., in a study examining the hair apposition and suturing techniques in emergency department patients with scalp laceration in terms of application times, reported that

hair apposition technique was associated with shorter procedure time [8]. As our study was retrospective, we could not gather any information on application times. However, experience from our daily practice suggests that stapling method can be performed in a relatively shorter time. Ong et al. compared hair apposition and suturing techniques in terms of treatment cost in scalp lacerations and reported that hair apposition technique had a significantly lower cost. They related that result to a shorter time of the procedure, absence of need for anesthesia and suture removal, and low complication Crenolanib rates. They expressed that

the rate of scalp lacerations in EDs remain high and this technique would provide considerable cost saving [11]. Orlinsky et al., in a general study on costs of treatment of scalp lacerations in emergency departments, found that stapling was considerably advantageous with respect to overall cost [16]. We did not perform a cost analysis. Hair apposition technique may be used more commonly in selleck chemical daily practice by virtue of its low complication and cosmetic problem rate coupled with high patient satisfaction rate. Determination of the ideal wound closure technique buy BAY 73-4506 requires more prospective, randomized controlled studies with larger sample size that investigate factors effective on wound healing and satisfaction level. Limitations of the study A major limitations of the study was a retrospectively of it. We could not gather any information on application times. As the social security institution of Turkey employs a per case payment system for suturing materials and procedure, no cost analysis was performed for any of the 3 groups. Conclusion Emergency departments are one of the leading clinics where patient crowding is greatest. Thus, time-consuming procedures such as laceration repair may be problematic for the operators.

Briefly, mice were lightly anesthetized by intraperitoneal (i p )

Briefly, mice were lightly anesthetized by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a 200 μl mixture consisting of Ketamine (12 mg/ml Anaket-V, Centaur Labs) and Xylazine (1.6 mg/ml, Rompun, Bayer). Mice were gently lifted by the loose skin at the throat, and kept upright with its head RG7112 datasheet tilted back and the nose pointed up. Using a pipette with a sterile

tip, 40 μl of the declumped mycobacterial suspension was applied to the nostrils. Animals were maintained upright for another 30 seconds to ensure complete delivery to the Y-27632 in vivo respiratory system. Six weeks (day 42) later, mice were infected under light anaesthesia intragastrically (i.g.) with 200–250 (low dose) or 500–600 (high dose) embryonated T. muris eggs or an equal volume of PBS. At

GSK3235025 in vitro week 9 (day 63), mice were culled and the relevant organs removed for investigation. The second protocol (Figure 1B) was designed to first establish a TH2-inducing T. muris infection prior to challenge with M. bovis BCG infection. Animals were infected i.g. with 200–250 embryonated T. muris eggs or an equal amount of PBS on day 1 and every 10 days thereafter until experimental completion. On day 10, animals were infected i.n. with 1–5 × 105 CFU BCG bacilli or an equal volume of PBS. After 6 weeks (day 52), all mice were humanely euthanized and the relevant organs removed for investigation. Experiments were completed in triplicate at three separate times. Figure 1 Experimental design. (A) BALB/c mice were infected i.n. with M. bovis BCG on day 1, followed by i.g. T. muris infection on day 42. Mice were killed on day 63 and the relevant tissues collected for further analysis.

(B) BALB/c mice were infected i.g. with T. muris every 10 days starting on day 1. Animals were co-infected i.n. with M. bovis BCG on day 10. Mice were killed on day 52 and the relevant tissues collected. Appropriate single infections and PBS controls were included in parallel for both protocols. Experiments were performed with 5 to 10 animals per group. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. (ns = non significant). Immune phenotyping and intracellular cytokine analysis Immune phenotyping was performed using single cell suspensions from spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Intracellular cytokine expression was determined following PtdIns(3,4)P2 stimulation with 50 ng/ml Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (Sigma), 1 μg/ml Ionomycin (Sigma) and 10 μg/ml Brefeldin A (BFA) (Sigma) for 4 hours at 37°C and 5% CO2. Cells were resuspended in PBS containing 1% BSA and 0.1% Sodium Azide (wash buffer) and stained for 30 minutes with fluorochrome conjugated anti-mouse antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, B220, Foxp3, IFN-γ and IL-4 (BD Biosciences, Caltag or Biolegend). Cells were fixed with 1% formaldehyde, washed and resuspended in wash buffer. Lymphocyte populations were determined based on their Forward/Side scatter profile and gates set with the help of appropriate FMOs and Isotype controls.

Recent years have witnessed an uprising in the incidence rate of

Recent years have witnessed an uprising in the incidence rate of hepatoma. Therefore, it is of vital importance to improve the therapeutic treatment of hepatoma. Excision is still the best alternative in the multiple therapeutic methods for the treatment of hepatoma NU7026 [3, 4]. Nevertheless, the

diagnostic rate in earlier hepatoma is quite low and the progression of disease is comparatively rapid. Therefore, the majority of patients have lost a surgical opportunity after final diagnosis. References indicate that 60% of patients have clinical or endoscopic metastasis in the final diagnosis of hepatoma [5]. Thus, non-operative therapy showed better practical value than operative therapy. Chemotherapy is also commonly used in non-operative methods, and is a kind of general therapeutic method for the treatment of the primary tumors, metastases and inferior clinical metastatic tumors. However, the involvement of MDR seriously affects the chemotherapeutic effect in hepatoma. Significance of the establishment of multi-drug resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma cell sub-lines model The chemotherapeutic effect was restricted due to the involvement of multi-drug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The related MDR of hepatoma and its clinical reversal is becoming a critical

clinical problem PF-4708671 chemical structure that needs a further solution. Research on this aspect requires the establishment of a reliable multi-drug resistant cell model [6]. Currently, the establishment of a multi-drug resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line model includes methods such as the application of an in vitro culture to induce tumor MDR, multi-drug resistant gene transfection and the induction of drug-resistance by nude mice implanted model. Induction of tumor MDR in vitro culture also required two types of methods, the drug concentration incremental gradient method and the high-concentration Obeticholic Acid intermittent

drug-selleckchem induced method [7, 8]. The drug-resistance method induced by nude mouse in vivo transplantation includes three methods: subcutaneous implantation, liver implantation and abdominal implantation. There are advantages and disadvantaged involved in the various methods. In vitro drug concentration incremental gradient induction, liver and subcutaneous implanted induction of nude mice are commonly used as three methods for establishing multi-drug resistant human ADM hepatocellular carcinoma cell sub-lines. The tumor cell microenvironment includes various factors such as temperatures, pH values, local oxygen concentration, cell matrix, nutritional condition and medications, which play a critical regulatory role in the biological behavior of cells and MDR expression.

The formation of Lan and MeLan are attributed to the intermolecul

The formation of Lan and MeLan are attributed to the intermolecular cyclization of the thiol groups of cysteine residues with Dha and Dhb, which are obtained from the dehydration of serine and threonine residues, respectively. Dedicated biosynthetic enzymes are required during the process of maturation and the genes encoding these proteins are clustered, as described for nisin [4, 5], pep5

[6], nukacin ISK-1 [7], epicidin 280 [8], and mersacidin [9]. According to the genetic organization of lantibiotics, they can be divided into several types [10, 11]. The typical gene cluster of type AI lantibiotics, such as nisin and epidermin, includes the structural gene lanA, modification enzyme-encoding genes lanB and lanC, LY2874455 the processing protease-encoding gene lanP, the transporter gene lanT, and the immunity genes lanI and/or lanEFG. However, not all type AI lantibiotic-like

gene clusters contain all these genes; for example, in the gene cluster spaBTCAIFGRK [12], which codes for the biosynthesis of subtilin, the function of LanP is replaced by an click here intrinsic protease of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 [13]. Much attention has been concentrated on the identification of new lantibiotics because of their potent antimicrobial activities. In recent years, with the availability of abundant genomic sequence data in public databases, many new lantibiotics and lantipeptides such as Bsa, lichenicidin, Quisinostat in vitro and a range of cyanobacteria-associated lantipeptides [14–16] have been identified. For example, the bacterial genus Paenibacillus Buspirone HCl is known for its ability to produce peptide antibiotics [17–19], and an increasing number of Paenibacillus spp. genomes have been sequenced, revealing several novel lantibiotic-related gene clusters [20, 21]. However, to date, only one novel lantibiotic, paenibacillin,

produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa OSY-DF [22] has been reported. In the present study, we present the detailed bioinformatic analysis of a novel lantibiotic-like gene cluster in the Paenibacillus elgii B69 genome. Screening of bacterial cultures, mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, and N-terminal amino acid sequencing were used to confirm that the P. elgii B69 gene cluster encodes elgicins, novel broad-spectrum lantibiotics. Results and discussion Putative lantibiotic-like gene cluster of P. Elgii B69 P. elgii B69 was subjected to whole-genome shotgun sequencing, yielding 7.9 Mb of sequence on 278 assembled contigs [23]. Data mining for the LanC homolog amidst the genomic data of P. elgii B69, using the SpaC sequence of P. polymyxa E681 as a driver, resulted in the identification of a lantibiotic-like gene cluster containing five probable open reading frames (ORFs), designated elgT1, elgC, elgT2, elgB, and elgA (Figure 1A).

PMEF cells were treated with various concentrations of GO and S-r

PMEF cells were treated with various concentrations of GO and S-rGO for 4 days. ALP activity was measured as described in the ‘Methods’ section. The results represent the means of three separate experiments, and error bars represent the standard error of the mean. GO- and S-rGO-treated groups showed statistically significant differences Inhibitor Library datasheet from the control group by Student’s t test (p < 0.05). Conclusions We demonstrated a simple and green approach for the synthesis of water-soluble graphene using spinach leaf extracts. The transition of GO to graphene was confirmed by various analytical techniques such as UV–vis spectroscopy, DLS,

FTIR, SEM, and AFM. Raman spectroscopy studies confirmed that the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups from the surface of GO led to the formation of graphene with Selleckchem MK 8931 defects. The obtained results suggest that this approach could provide an easy technique to produce graphene in bulk quantity for generating graphene-based materials. In addition, SLE can

be used as an alternative reducing agent compared to the widely used and highly toxic reducing agent called hydrazine. Further, the cells treated with S-rGO show a significant compatibility with PMEF cells in various assays such MEK inhibitor as cell viability, LDH leakage, and ALP activity. The significance of our findings is due to the harmless and effective reagent, SLE, which could replace hydrazine in the large-scale preparation of graphene. The biocompatible properties of SLE-mediated graphene in PMEFs could be an efficient platform for various biomedical applications such as the delivery of anti-inflammatory and water-insoluble anticancer drugs, and also it can be used for efficient stem cell growth and differentiation purposes. Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase Acknowledgements This paper was supported by the SMART-Research Professor Program of Konkuk University. Dr. Sangiliyandi Gurunathan was supported by Konkuk University SMART-Full time Professorship. This work was supported by Woo the Jang Choon project (PJ007849) and next generation of Biogreen 21 (PJ009625). References 1. Rao CNR, Sood

AK, Subrahmanyam KS, Govindaraj A: Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial. Angew Chem Int Ed 2009,48(42):7752–7777.CrossRef 2. Singh V, Joung D, Zhai L, Das S, Khondaker SI, Seal S: Graphene based materials: past, present and future. Science Progress in Materials 2011, 56:1178–1271.CrossRef 3. Mao HY, Laurent S, Chen W, Akhavan O, Imani M, Ashkarran AA, Mahmoudi M: Challenges in graphene: promises, facts, opportunities, and nanomedicine. Chem Rev 2013,113(5):3407–3424.CrossRef 4. Shao Y, Wang J, Wu H, Liu J, Aksay IA, Lin Y: Graphene based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Electroanalysis 2010,22(10):1027–1036.CrossRef 5. Akhavan O, Ghaderi E, Rahighi R: Toward single-DNA electrochemical biosensing by graphene nanowalls. ACS Nano 2012,6(4):2904–2916.CrossRef 6.

The disruption construct was developed by amplifying an 800 bp 5′

The disruption construct was developed by amplifying an 800 bp 5′ flanking region to Gba1 using the primers GbetaKOF1 and www.selleckchem.com/products/hsp990-nvp-hsp990.html F2 and cloning this into the KpnI and XhoI sites in pBSK-phleo [11]. Similarly, the 823 bp 3′ flank of Gba1 was amplified with GbetaKOR1 and R2 and cloned into Pst1 and BamHI sites subsequent to the 5′ flank cloning. The subsequent

construct, pBphleo-GβKO, was transformed into S. nodorum SN15 as described below. Preparation and transformation of S. nodorum protoplasts Protoplasts were prepared from S. nodorum mycelia as described by Solomon et al.[11]. Transformation was performed as per Solomon et al. [22]. Fungal transformants were screened for homologous recombination by PCR. PCR primers were designed to anneal Selleckchem Thiazovivin to the non-coding genomic regions flanking either Gba1 or Gga1 in S. nodorum SN15. The screening primers are listed in Table 1. RT-(q)PCR determination of gene copy number The number of targeted gene insertions following fungal transformation was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) as described by [23]. Briefly, this involved calculating the ratio of the RT-qPCR determined cycle-threshold (CT) of the inserted phleomycin cassette to that of an endogenous single-copy actin gene; comparative to a known single-copy phleomycin cassette-possessing strain

of S. nodorum. CT Values were determined from reactions consisting of four gDNA amounts (100 ng, 33.5 ng, 10 ng and 3.35 ng) for each template, performed in triplicate. The primer pairs PhleoqPCRf and PhleoqPCRr or ActinqPCRf and ActinqPCRr were each used at 1.2 μM with 1× QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (DNA Taq Polymerase, QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR Buffer, dNTPs, SYBR Green I dye; 6-phosphogluconolactonase Qiagen, Australia), in a reaction volume of 15 μl. Thermal cycling consisted of 95°C for 15 minutes, followed by 40 cycles of (94°C for 15 seconds, 57°C for 30 buy 4EGI-1 seconds and 72°C for 30 seconds). Histological staining and microscopy Cross-sections of fungal tissues were examined by compound microscopy as described

by [12]. An excised region of the culture was fixed overnight in FAA [3.7% (v/v) formaldehyde, 5% (v/v) glacial acetic acid, 47% (v/v) ethanol] and dehydrated in 3 hour stages of ascending concentrations of ethanol, at 70%, 90% and 100%. Cultures were then rinsed in chloroform and infiltrated with molten Paraplast® paraffin wax and the fungal culture cross-sectioned in 10 μm sections with a Shandon MX35 blade using a Leica Microtome RM225 (Leica Microsystems). Series of sections were embedded to a glass slide by overnight incubation at 60°C. Wax was removed from the sectioned tissue by two 5-minute rinses with xylene. Sections were stained with 1% toluidine blue. Light microscopy was performed using an Olympus BH-2 compound microscope equipped with Olympus DP12 image acquisition software (Olympus America Inc., USA).

Results Overall, 530 deaths were analyzed

There was a de

Results Overall, 530 deaths were analyzed.

There was a decrease in the number of deaths and RG-7388 concentration proportion of mortality by trauma-related causes in the period 2005-2008 compared to the period 2001-2004 (p < 0.001) (Figure  1). Figure 1 Deaths from external cause and proportion of all deaths among children < 18 years from 2001 to 2008. There were 411 males (77.5%) and 119 females (22.5%). The proportion of males to females was 3.4:1 (p < 0.001). 76% of deaths were in children between 10-17 years old (Figure  2). Figure 2 Deaths by age group. Gun-related injury was the most prevalent cause (249 deaths-47%), followed by transport-related injuries (138 deaths-26%) and drowning (55 deaths-10.4%). In the period from 2005 to 2008 the decrease of deaths was a consequence of a marked reduction in gun-related injuries (Figure  3). Using the Cochran-Armitage Adavosertib research buy trend test there was a linear tendency GDC-0068 datasheet of a decrease in deaths by firearms (p < 0.0001) and an increase in transport-related deaths (p < 0.0001) throughout the years. Figure 3 Deaths and most frequent causes of injuries between 2001 and 2008.

Asphyxia/suffocation was the cause of injury in 72% of deaths in group < 1 year; drowning (30.8%) and transport-related injuries (22.8%) were more predominant in the 1-4 age group; transport-related deaths were frequent in the 5-9 age group (56%) and 10-14 age group (40.4%) whilst firearm injuries had the highest frequency in the group 14-17 age group (68%)-Table  1. Table 1 Deaths according to mechanism of injury and age groups Mechanism Total <1 year

1-4 5-9 10-14 15-17   530 25 52 50 94 309 –asphyxia / suffocation 25 18 5 1 – 1 –blunt trauma 14 1 3 1 1 8 –stabb 6 – - – 1 5 –drowning 55 1 16 6 14 18 –intoxication 3 1 – - – 2 –fall 21 2 5 4 5 5 –burn related 10 – 6 3 – 1 –firearm 249 – 2 4 33 210 –hanging / strangulation 8 1 – 2 2 3 –road traffic related 138 1 15 28 38 56  passenger 44 – 5 9 9 21  pedestrian 77 1 10 18 27 21  train 2 – - 1 – 1  bicycle 2 – - – 1 1  motorcycle ID-8 13 – - – 1 12 –others 1 – - 1 – - Pedestrian strike was the cause of injury in 57.2% of transport-related deaths. Two children (9 and 16 years old) were hit by a train. Motorcycle crashes are a public health problem in Brazil and 13 adolescents died this way (Figure  4). Figure 4 Transport-related deaths by age group. Regarding times of death, 51% occurred at the scene, 4.7% during pre-hospital care, 25.6% occurred at the hospital within the first 24 hours after admission, and the remaining 18.7% of deaths occurred after 24 hours after admission to the hospital. Gun-related injuries carried a 49% mortality rate at the scene, followed by transport-related deaths (19%) and drowning (14%). When we analyzed the deaths according to the intent, homicides occurred in 50.6% of cases and were more frequent in the 10-17 age group. Unintentional injuries occurred in 48.5% of deaths and traffic-related injuries were the most common.