00001 < p < 0 004) had worse

00001 < p < 0.004) had worse Selleck ACY-738 HRQOL than AHAs in all domains within the physical sphere. This was not so for the spiritual sphere. Consistently, stroke severity correlated significantly with all domains in the physical sphere unlike the spiritual sphere. In diverse cultures, the correlation coefficients between HRQOL and all indices of stroke severity revealed a decremental trend from the physical domain (rho = 0.77, p < 0.00001) to the spiritual domain (rho = 0.01, p = 0.893).


Consistently, stroke elicited a decremental response across domains, with domains in the spiritual sphere being relatively stroke-resilient. The potential utility of the relatively preserved spiritual sphere in facilitating stroke rehabilitation requires evaluation

in diverse cultures.”
“In this work, we have evaluated the curing process of a natural-based plasticizer, epoxidized linseed oil, as a possible alternative to phthalate substitution for polyvinyl chloride. Several curing times ranging from 6 to 14 min at this website different isothermal curing temperatures in the 140-220 degrees C range have been selected. The effects of the curing process (in terms of time and temperature) have been determined by mechanical tests, color measurements, and microstructure characterization. The obtained results show that optimum overall properties are obtained for curing times of 1012 min at 200 degrees C or 8 min at 220 degrees C, which are typical values of industrial processing of vinyl plastisols. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Reconstituted parenteral solutions of three surface-active anti-infective small-molecule drugs and solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a model surfactant) were studied to quantify the impact of sample preparation and handling on particle counts. Turbidimetry and light obscuration profiles were recorded

as a function of agitation and shearing with and without the introduction of foam into BV-6 order the solutions. SDS solutions at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) show significantly greater sensitivity to shear and foam presence than SDS solution below the CMC: Values of > 10 mu m particles increased 8 fold over control (an unsheared sample) in the micellar solution vs. 4 fold particle count increase over control at a sub-micellar concentration. An even more significant increase in the ratio of particle count in sheared/unsheared solution is seen for > 25 mu m unit counts, due to the increased interference of foam with the measurement. Two commercial products, injection formulations of teicoplanin and cefotaxime sodium, as well as an investigational compound 1, showed an increase in scattering as a function of foam production. The impact of foaming was significant, resulting in an increase of turbidity and light obscuration measurements in all solutions.

This ligament was fenestrated with separate anterior and posterio

This ligament was fenestrated with separate anterior and posterior fibers. The anterior fibers were more proximal, and the posterior fibers were more distal, attaching to the fibula in close proximity to the PITFL. Coronal images best depicted the course of the IOL.

Conclusion: Oblique imaging planes parallel to the long axis of the ligament better display the normal anatomy of the tibiofibular syndesmotic ligaments when compared with standard imaging planes. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“We report on the electro-optic and dielectric properties of optical switching devices

based on poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes sandwiching a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) layer. We demonstrate that the frequency

dependence of the driving AC220 concentration electric field on the optical properties of these devices allows the fabrication of flexible bandpass light modulators. Selleck FK866 The (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes are characterized using UV-Vis, scanning electron microscopy, Raman, conductive atomic force microscopy, and linear four probe technique. The PEDOT:PSS/PDLC-based displays exhibit similar electro-optical performances to those of ITO-based devices. In addition, it can function as a bandpass light modulator. This behavior resulted from depolarization fields (Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars effects) occurring (i) at the polymer/LC interface (low frequency) and (ii) between nanometer-sized conductive PEDOT-rich domains and poorly conductive PSS-rich areas present in the bulk and at the surface of the electrode (high frequency). (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3518041].”
“Purpose: To image cartilage- bone interfaces in naturally occurring and experimentally prepared human cartilage-bone specimens at 3 T by using ultrashort echo time (TE) (UTE) and conventional pulse sequences to (a) determine the appearance of the signal intensity patterns and (b) identify the structures contributing to signal intensity on the UTE MR images.

Materials and Methods: This study was exempted by the institutional review board, and informed consent was not required. Five

cadaveric ( mean age, 86 years +/- 4) patellae were imaged by using proton density-weighted fat-suppressed find more ( repetition time msec/TE msec, 2300/34), T1-weighted (700/10), and UTE (300/0.008, 6.6, with or without dual-inversion preparations at inversion time 1 = 135 msec and inversion time 2 = 95 msec) sequences. The UTE images were compared with proton density-weighted fat-suppressed and T1-weighted images and were evaluated by two radiologists. To identify the sources of signal on the UTE images, samples including specific combinations of tissues (uncalcified cartilage [UCC] only, calcified cartilage [CC] and subchondral bone [bone] [CC/bone], bone only; and UCC, CC, and bone [UCC/CC/bone]) were prepared and imaged by using the UTE sequence.

On the other hand, the modified polypropylene exhibits an unexpec

On the other hand, the modified polypropylene exhibits an unexpected

viscosity-shear rate pattern, which describes the reverse crosslinking reaction mainly occurring by the opening of the bridges of the new interpenetrating network (IPN) formed. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“By employing a self-consistent approach, we reveal a number of unique properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbons under crossed electric and magnetic fields: (1) a very strong electrical polarization along the transverse direction selleckchem of the ribbon, and (2) a strong nonlinear Hall current under a rather moderate electrical field. At the field strength of 5000 V/cm, the ratio of the nonlinear current to the linear current is around 1 under an applied magnetic field of 7.9 T. Our results suggest that graphene nanoribbons are an ideal system to achieve a large electrical polarizability. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effect in graphene nanoribbons has been grossly underestimated without the self-consistent scheme proposed here. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3647783]“
“To investigate the mechanism of carbapenem resistance and the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnr and aac(6′)-Ib-cr in a clinical isolate of Enterobacter SBC-115076 datasheet cloacae.

An ertapenem-resistant E. cloacae

ZY106, which was isolated from liquor puris of a female gastric cancer patient in a Chinese hospital, was investigated. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by agar dilution method. Conjugation experiments, isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequence analyses

of plasmid-mediated carbapenemases and quinolone resistance determinants were preformed to confirm the genotype. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were examined by urea-sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Urea-SDS-PAGE).

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem for ZY106 were 2, 4, and 16 mu g/ml, respectively. Conjugation studies with Escherichia coli resulted in the transfer of significantly reduced Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor carbapenem susceptibility. ZY106 produced IMP-1 metallo-beta-lactamase and CTX-M-3 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and E. coli transconjugant produced IMP-1. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrS1 was detected in ZY106. Transfer of the qnrS1-encoding-plasmid into E. coli by conjugation resulted in intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli transconjugant. Urea-SDS-PAGE analysis of OMPs showed that ZY106 lacked an OMP of approximately 38 kDa.

It is the first IMP-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae in China and the first report of a clinical isolate that harbors both blaIMP and qnrS genes as well. The blaIMP-1, blaCTX-M-3, and qnrS1 are encoded at three different plasmids.

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 1

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 121: 2752-2760, 2011″
“Bacterial vaginosis is a change of vaginal flora in which the normal lactobacilli flora is replaced by an overgrowth of Gardnerella

vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. VX-809 purchase Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal infection in women during their reproductive age. The relationship between bacterial vaginosis and increase of vaginal pH is suggested by the use of intravaginal acidification substances as a way for normalization of vaginal flora and treatment of bacterial vaginosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of vitamin C vaginal tablet and metronidazole vaginal gel in treatment of bacterial vaginosis in patient referring to Ahwaz Amir Al Momenin hospital in Ahwaz

city, Iran. In this randomized clinical trial 60 non-pregnant women aged between 15 – 45 years with confirmed diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by Amsel criteria were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg vitamin C tablet via vaginal route once daily for 6 days (n = 30) or 5 gm of 0.75% vaginal gel metronidazole once daily for 5 days (n = 30). The results of both groups compared for demographic characteristic, contraceptive and education level. The cure rate evaluated in both groups after two (1st and 2nd weeks) follow up visits. For statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, X(2) and Fisher’s exact test performed. The study shows that cure rate after 1 week in vitamin C vaginal tablet group was 76.7% and in metronidazole vaginal gel group was 80% and after 2 weeks, cure rate was 9.5 and 5% Selleck MAPK inhibitor respectively.

Vitamin C vaginal tablet 250 mg is as effective as metronidazole vaginal gel for treatment of bacterial vaginosis.”
“Active magnetic tuning of a microstrip hairpin-line coupled resonator bandpass filter fabricated on a polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet substrate has been demonstrated. The filter exhibits a five-pole Chebyshev response with passband center frequency Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor tunability from 8.3 to 9 GHz under low applied H fields of 50-200 Oe. The instantaneous bandwidth was measured to be approximately 1 GHz. During tuning, passband center frequency insertion loss varies between 1 and 1.4 dB. Good agreement between simulated and measured device performance was demonstrated. Advantages of the proposed filter design include planar geometry, compact size, low insertion loss, and low field tunability. The proposed design approach lends itself to the implementation of a wide range of filter responses, including low pass, high pass, bandpass, and band stop, as well as passband characteristics, including center frequency, fractional bandwidth, passband ripple, out-of-band rejection, etc. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3556696]“
“A novel, physically stabilized hydrogel system composed of chitosan (Chi) or its derivatives [e. g.

However, these methods rely on surrogate biological objectives (e

However, these methods rely on surrogate biological objectives (e.g., maximize growth rate or minimize metabolic

adjustments) and do not make use of flux measurements often available for the wild-type strain. In this work, we introduce the OptForce Epigenetics inhibitor procedure that identifies all possible engineering interventions by classifying reactions in the metabolic model depending upon whether their flux values must increase, decrease or become equal to zero to meet a pre-specified overproduction target. We hierarchically apply this classification rule for pairs, triples, quadruples, etc. of reactions. This leads to the identification of a sufficient and non-redundant set of fluxes that must change (i.e., MUST set) to meet a pre-specified overproduction target. Starting with this set we subsequently extract a minimal set of fluxes that must actively be forced through genetic manipulations (i.e., FORCE set) to ensure that all fluxes in the network are consistent

with the overproduction objective. We demonstrate our OptForce framework for succinate production in Escherichia coli using the most recent in silico E. coli model, iAF1260. The method not only recapitulates existing engineering strategies but also reveals non-intuitive Duvelisib chemical structure ones that boost succinate production by performing coordinated changes on pathways distant from the last steps of succinate synthesis.”
“Diffusion-induced stress (DIS) development and stress-enhanced diffusion (SED) in amorphous lithium alloy nanowire battery electrodes are investigated using a finite deformation model, accounting for full two-way coupling between diffusion and stress evolution. Analytical

solutions are derived using a perturbation method. The analyses reveal significant contributions to the driving force for diffusion by stress gradient, an effect much stronger than those seen in cathode lattices but so far has been neglected for alloy-based anodes. The contribution of stress to diffusion is small at low lithium concentrations, this lack of SED leads to significantly higher DIS AZD6738 levels in early stages of a charging cycle. As lithium concentration increases, SED becomes more pronounced, leading to lower DIS levels. The long-term DIS level in the material scales with charging rate, nanowire radius, and the mobility of Li ions as modulated by the effect of stress. The solutions obtained provide guidance for lowering stresses during charging. In particular, lower charging rates should be used during the initial stages of charging cycles. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3530738]“
“The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA polymerase (RdRp) may be a target of the drug ribavirin, and it is an object of drug development.

XRD experiments showed that copolymers and the complexes are amor

XRD experiments showed that copolymers and the complexes are amorphous. Among these complexes, Eu(III) complexes and Tb(III) complexes exhibit characteristic fluorescence with comparatively high brightness and good monochromaticity. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 3388-3394, 2009″
“Background: Little is known about the outcomes after repair of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome after repair of learn more partial-thickness rotator cuff tears compared with full-thickness tears. Our hypothesis was that repair of partial-thickness tears leads to more shoulder stiffness but fewer retears

compared with repair of full-thickness tears.

Methods: A group of 105 consecutive patients who had a full-thickness tear measuring <3 cm(2) was compared with a group of sixty-four patients who had a partial-thickness tear. All tears were repaired with use of a knotless single-row arthroscopic repair. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score and standardized patient and examiner-determined outcomes were obtained preoperatively and at six, twelve, and twenty-four weeks and at two years after surgery. Rotator

cuff integrity was determined by ultrasound examination at six months and two years after surgery.

Results: Examiner-determined p38 inhibitors clinical trials postoperative stiffness at six weeks was common in both groups (50% of those with a partial-thickness tear and 47% of those with a full-thickness tear) but was decreased compared with preoperative findings in both groups to 21% and 19%, respectively, at three months and to 15% and 14% at six months. The ultrasound-determined p38 MAPK inhibitor review retear rate was small (5% in the partial-thickness group and 10% in the full-thickness group) at six months, but increased to 10% and 20%, respectively, at twenty-four months. The ASES score,

patient-determined overall shoulder function, and all pain scores were superior to preoperative scores at six months (p < 0.001) and at twenty-four months (p < 0.001) in both groups.

Conclusions: Arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness and small and medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tears was associated with excellent medium-term clinical outcomes with low retear rates. The data did not support our hypothesis: the differences in retear rate and postoperative shoulder stiffness rate found between the two groups did not reach significance.

Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.”
“Objectives: The correlation between seroreactivity to Helicobacter pylori-specific antigens and clinical outcomes in gastrointestinal disease remains unresolved. We investigated the and-H. pylori antibody profile in northeast Thai dyspeptic patients with gastrointestinal disease in order to identify any H. pylori antigens that may be associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal disease.


Given the high rates of physical illness in patie


Given the high rates of physical illness in patients with mental health problems, specific educational initiatives to address medical student’s attitudes selleck chemicals to patients with mental health problems should be an educational priority in medical school.”
“The main problem in industrial practice when dealing with the curing process of thick EPM/EPDM elements is constituted by the different temperatures, which undergo internal (cooler) and external regions. Indeed, while internal layers remain essentially under-vulcanized, external coating is always

over-vulcanized, resulting in art overall average tensile strength insufficient to permit the utilization of the items in several applications where it is required a certain level of performance. A possibility to

improve rubber output mechanical properties is the utilization of mixtures of at least two peroxides, the first highly active at high temperatures (i.e., for external layers), the second at low temperatures (internal regions). In this framework, in this article, a simple numerical procedure for the optimization of final mechanical properties of vulcanized 2D and 3D thick rubber items is presented. In particular, a so called alternating tangent approach (AT) for the determination of the optimal input parameters to use during the production of complex 2D/3D thick items is presented. Vulcanization external temperature T(c) and rubber exposition time t are assumed as input production parameters, whereas output mechanical property to optimize is represented by the average ERK inhibitor tensile strength of the item. In the algorithm, a sufficiently large interval of exposition times at fixed T(c) (or curing temperatures at fixed exposition times) is chosen at the initial iteration, namely evaluating rubber tensile

strength at a very under-vulcanized and at a very over-vulcanized exposition time. For each extreme of the interval, first derivatives of final tensile strength with respect to exposition time (or curing temperature) are evaluated numerically. At the successive iteration, search exposition interval is reduced to one-half through bisection, selecting the right or left semi-interval basing BEZ235 the choice on first derivative sign evaluated at the middle point. The approach proposed converges very quickly to the optimal solution, competing favorably both with a very expensive method based on the subdivision of the domain in a refined grid of points and with recently presented GA approaches. Two meaningful examples of engineering interest, consisting of an high voltage electric cable and a 3D thick rubber docks bumper are illustrated. When dealing with the 3D item, due to its thickness, different mixtures of two peroxides (50%-50%, 25%-75% and 75%-25% molar ratios) are also used to improve drastically final mechanical properties. Optimal production T(c) and t parameters are obtained for all the cases analyzed. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

No other such case has been published to date The patient starte

No other such case has been published to date. The patient started receiving chemotherapy, but the scrotum metastasis grew rapidly and erupted. This led

to sepsis despite surgical excision of infected and necrotic tissues and intravenous antibiotics. Treatment strategy in pulmonary blastoma should be defined by a multidisciplinary team, and surgical treatment should be considered as quickly as possible when such a tumor is suspected. Copyright see more (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Recruiting deaf and hard-of-hearing participants, particularly sign language-users, for genetics health service research is challenging due to communication barriers, mistrust toward genetics, and researchers’ unfamiliarity with deaf people. Feelings of selleck compound social exclusion and

lack of social cohesion between researchers and the Deaf community are factors to consider. Social marketing is effective for recruiting hard-to-reach populations because it fosters social inclusion and cohesion by focusing on the targeted audience’s needs. For the deaf population this includes recognizing their cultural and linguistic diversity, their geography, and their systems for information exchange. Here we use concepts and language from social marketing to evaluate our effectiveness to engage a U. S. deaf population in a prospective, longitudinal genetic counseling and testing study.

Methods: The study design was interpreted in terms of a social marketing mix of Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. Price addressed linguistic diversity by including a variety of communication technologies and certified

interpreters to facilitate communication; Place addressed geography by including community-based participation locations; Promotion addressed information exchange by using multiple recruitment strategies. Regression analyses examined the study design’s effectiveness in recruiting a culturally and linguistically diverse sample.

Results: 271 AZD3965 individuals were enrolled, with 66.1% American Sign Language (ASL)-users, 19.9% ASL + English-users, 12.6% English-users. Language was significantly associated with communication technology, participation location, and recruitment. Videophone and interpreters were more likely to be used for communication between ASL-users and researchers while voice telephone and no interpreters were preferred by English-users (Price). ASL-users were more likely to participate in community-based locations while English-users preferred medically-based locations (Place). English-users were more likely to be recruited through mass media (Promotion) while ASL-users were more likely to be recruited through community events and to respond to messaging that emphasized inclusion of a Deaf perspective.

Conclusions: This study design effectively engaged the deaf population, particularly sign language-users.

A “”poor”" outcome was defined to be most of the eyelids still in

A “”poor”" outcome was defined to be most of the eyelids still in contact with the eyeball, and these patients persistently CFTR inhibitor complain of irritation or keratitis.

Results: The study included 46 lower eyelids of 23 patients (14 females, 9 males; mean age, 5.7 years) who underwent operation. Thirty-five eyelids (76.1%) were assessed to have a “”good”" outcome, 9 eyelids (19.6%) were assessed to have a “”fair”" outcome, and 2 eyelids

(4.3%) were assessed to have a “”poor”" outcome.

Conclusions: We firmly believe that epicanthoplasty is not necessarily performed routinely for all epiblepharon unless there is any specific reason to justify the combined procedure.”
“Background: Self-reported information is an important tool for collecting clinical information for epidemiologic studies and in clinical settings where electronic medical records are not employed and shared.

Methods: Using data AZD1480 supplier collected from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS), a population-based, prospective cohort study of 5,042 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Shanghai, China, we compared the concordance of patient questionnaire responses to a survey administered approximately 6 months after cancer diagnosis with medical chart information obtained from the diagnostic hospitals for several disease and treatment-related variables.

Results: Of 5,042 SBCSS participants,

medical chart information was available for 4,948 women (98.1%). Concordance between patient self-reported and medical chart information was high for the majority of disease-related variables, including: diagnosing hospital (agreement: 98.7%, kappa: 0.99), type of surgery conducted (94.0%, 0.53), ER/PR status (94.5%, 0.91), and tumor position (98.2%, 0.97), as well as for important calendar dates, such as date of diagnosis,

surgery, and first chemotherapy treatment. The 10 most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs were all reported with agreement SB202190 manufacturer rates of at least 82%, with associated kappa values that ranged from 0.41 for calcium folinate to 0.76 for vinorelbine.

Conclusions: Our study found high validity for patient self-reported information for a variety of disease and treatment-related variables, suggesting the utility of self-reports as an important source of clinical information for both epidemiological research and patient care.”
“Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is a potentially complicated surgery with significant hospitalisation, especially during the learning curve. There are inadequate data on fast-track LRYGB in relation to learning curve. This study highlights the outcomes of a fast-track LRYGB service.

This observational study examined the perioperative outcome data of 406 consecutive LRYGB patients over a 4-year period. Perioperative outcome data were analysed and compared between severe obesity, morbid obesity and super obesity groups.

Mean BMI was 48.6 +/- 8.3, mean age was 42 years and male to female ratio was 1:4.

There are significant differences between US and international cr

There are significant differences between US and international craniofacial surgeons in terms of demographics and practice, with more US surgeons performing fewer major craniofacial osteotomies. There is a significant gender disparity, which warrants further study.”
“Nanoparticles prepared of human serum albumin (HSA) represent promising carriers for drug delivery. Desolvating procedure is a common method to obtain protein-based particles. However process parameters have a great influence on size, size distribution and particle yield of the resulting formulation. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate their effects on particle preparation. This study is focused on the

influence of different desolvating agents on the resulting particle characteristics and cytotoxicity in cell culture. Another aspect of the study was the influence of different stirring rates, pre-stirring of the HSA solution and the selleck inhibitor continuous addition of desolvating agent during the preparation process. The results indicate that it is possible to predict the particle size

depending on dielectric constant of the desolvation medium. Remarkably, combination of methanol and ethanol used as desolvating agent was able to produce very small spherical HSA nanoparticles in a size range between 50 and 80 nm.”
“Objective. To investigate the preventive effect of locally applied sodium bicarbonate on bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ).

Study Design. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Animals in group I received 0.1 mg/ kg sterile saline 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Groups II, III, and IV received intraperitoneal zoledronate injection in IPI-549 price the same manner with the same frequency and duration. The right first molar tooth was extracted in groups III and IV. One mL 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (SB) was applied to the extraction socket at the time see more of extraction in group IV. The effect of locally applied SB as an alkalizing agent was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis.

Results. BRONJ was observed in none of the animals in the control groups, 67% of the

animals in the tooth extraction group, and none of the animals in the local SB application group (P < .01).

Conclusions. Administration of locally applied SB had positive effects on the prevention of BRONJ in animals, but further studies are required to verify the effectiveness of this form of treatment before its use in humans.”
“Purpose Partial pancreatico-duodenectomy is the standard treatment for malignancies of the pancreatic head. We describe a technical modification with a retrograde dissection of the pancreatic head as a novel surgical approach.

Methods Retrograde resection of the pancreatic head is performed starting with the uncinate process after division of the first jejunal loop and transection of the pancreas as the last operative step of the resection. Technical aspects and possible advantages for this procedure are discussed.