l , but that indehiscent fruits evolved independently several tim

l., but that indehiscent fruits evolved independently several times from dehiscent fruits. With Lepidium

selleck chemicals llc campestre and Cardaria pubescens (also known as Lepidium appelianum), very closely related taxa with dehiscent and indehiscent fruits, respectively, were identified which constitute a well-suited model system to determine the molecular genetic basis of evolutionary changes in fruit dehiscence. Following the rationale of evolutionary developmental biology (‘evo-devo’) phylomimicking mutants with indehiscent fruits of the close relative Arabidopsis have been used to define the candidate genes ALC, FUL, IND, RPL, and SHP1/2 which might be involved in the origin of indehiscent fruits in Cardaria. Comparative expression studies in L. campestre and C. pubescens are used to identify differentially expressed genes and thus to narrow down the number of candidate genes. Reciprocal heterologous NVP-AUY922 research buy transformation experiments may help us to distinguish direct from indirect developmental genetic causes of fruit indehiscence, and to assess the contribution of cis- and trans-regulatory changes.”
“Flow-mediated dilatation evaluation using hand skin heating may possibly be more accurate than post-ischaemic hyperaemia to detect conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes. We

measured in 24 type 1 diabetic patients (n=16 without microangiopathy) and 24 healthy matched subjects radial artery diameter (echotracking), blood flow and mean wall shear stress during heating and post-ischaemic

hyperaemia. Compared with controls, flow-mediated dilatation was lower in diabetic patients during post-ischaemic hyperaemia and heating. However, in the subgroup of uncomplicated patients, a decreased flow-mediated dilatation was only apparent during heating (17.1 +/- 1.6% vs. 24.3 +/- 0.7%, p < 0.05) but not during post-ischaemic hyperaemia (10.1 +/- 1.1% vs. 10.5 +/- 0.6%, NS). This was confirmed by the lower slope of the diameter-mean wall shear stress relationship in these patients in the absence of modification in endothelium-independent dilatation. We conclude that hand skin heating permits the early detection of conduit artery endothelial JQ-EZ-05 clinical trial dysfunction in type 1 diabetic patients with normal response to post-ischaemic hyperaemia. This procedure could be useful to investigate the prognostic role of vascular dysfunction and the impact of vasculoprotective treatments in this patient population.”
“Periods of carbohydrate deprivation are commonly encountered by plant cells. Plants respond to this nutrient stress by the mobilization of stored carbohydrates and the reallocation of other cellular macromolecules to degradative pathways. Previously we identified a number of metabolic genes that are upregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana cells during sucrose starvation. One of the genes identified encodes acyl-CoA oxidase-4 (ACX4, EC, a peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase that is unique to plants and involved in beta-oxidation of short-chain fatty acids.

Nine studies, rated moderate to poor quality, were included in th

Nine studies, rated moderate to poor quality, were included in the review; all were from developed

countries and explored the impact of televised food advertising. Overall, the results did not show conclusively whether or not food advertising affects food-related behaviour, attitudes or beliefs in adults, but suggest that the impact varies inconsistently within subgroups, including gender, weight and existing food psychology. The identification of a small number of relevant studies, none of which were high quality, and with substantial heterogeneity, highlights the need for further research. Future studies investigating longer term outcomes, diverse advertising formats, and in countries with different levels selleck compound of economic development will be of particular value.”
“We present a critical review of the analytical procedures proposed in the past decade for the determination of fluoroquinolones (FQs) by chromatographic methods in solid environmental matrices. We emphasize the overall analytical procedure, from sampling to final detection. We devote special attention to sample preparation, highlighting the problems Bafilomycin A1 order involved in the analysis of real complex matrices, mainly soil, sediment, manure and sludge.

We compare the different extraction techniques in terms of efficiency, time taken and environmental impact, pointing out advantages and drawbacks. We provide an overview on the role of photochemistry in the degradation of FQs in soils and sediments, and we underline the central position of analytical chemistry in environmental monitoring because FQs are emerging pollutants. (C)

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponin, (20R)-ginsenoside ST2 (1), along with five known saponins was isolated from the hongshen extract of Shenmai injection. The structure of 1 was elucidated to be (20R)-dammar-23(E)-ene-3,6,12,20,25-pentol 6-O–d-glucopyranoside by means of spectroscopic methods.”
“Introduction: Free radicals and reactive oxygen species are compounds usually present in healthy organisms QNZ order as natural products of many metabolic pathways, and they are important in cell signaling and homeostasis. As a source of reactive oxygen species one can mention phagocytic cells and enzymes such as xanthine oxidase. Sometimes the level of reactive oxygen species strongly increases. This may lead to damage of very important cell structures such as nucleic acids, proteins or lipids. In this situation one should provide the organism with powerful antioxidants as a medicine or in the diet. A rich source of strong antioxidants such as phenolic compounds is plant raw materials, which are the subject of our study.

MicroRNAs were detected by microarray and subjected to bioinforma

MicroRNAs were detected by microarray and subjected to bioinformatics analyses. Real-time PCR and Western blots were performed. The relationships between pathological changes and

microRNA expression were evaluated by linear regression analysis. Apoptosis and proliferation of cultured PD173074 mouse mesangial cells treated with microRNA inhibitor were determined by flow cytometry and MTT assay, respectively.

Results: Nine microRNAs, including miR-1187, miR320, miR-214, miR-34a, miR-762, miR-466f, miR-720, miR-744 and miR-1937b, were increased significantly. Another 9 microRNAs, including miR-1907, miR-195, miR-568, miR-26b, miR-703, miR-1196, miR-194, miR-805 and miR-192, were decreased remarkably in diabetic mice. The levels of microRNA repressing BCL2 decreased. Accordingly, BCL2 levels were found elevated and caspase-3 and caspase-8 levels decreased in the diabetic group. MicroRNA-195 expression was negatively related to glomeruli diameter, mesangial score and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. Moreover, the microRNA-195 inhibitor protected mesangial cells from apoptosis and promoted the cellular proliferation in vitro.

Conclusions: These results demonstrated that the abated microRNA-195 expression protected mesangial cells from apoptosis, suggesting that the antiapoptosis in a microRNA-regulated manner may play an important role in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy.”

VS-4718 mouse The purposes of this study of women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy with/without radiation therapy were to determine whether: (1) subgroups of oncology outpatients can be identified based on a specific symptom cluster (i.e., pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, depression); (2) these subgroups differ on outcomes (i.e.,

functional status, quality of life); (3) subgroup membership changes over time.

Methods: A secondary data analysis using data collected from 112 women at initial chemotherapy. Symptom and outcome measures were completed at three time points: baseline (i.e., the week before cycle two – T1); end of Y27632 cancer treatment (T2), end of the study (approximately one year after the start of chemotherapy – 13). Cluster analysis identified patient subgroups based on symptom severity scores.

Results: At T1 and T2, four patient subgroups were identified: ALL LOW (one or no symptom greater than the cut score), MILD (two symptoms), MODERATE (three or four symptoms), and ALL HIGH (four symptoms). At T3, three subgroups were identified: MILD, MODERATE and ALL HIGH. Subgroups with high severity levels of all four symptoms had poorer functional status and QOL at each time point than other subgroups (p < 0.001). Group membership changed over time.

Conclusions: Subgroups of patients with different symptom experiences were identified. For some patients severity of all four symptoms persisted months after cancer treatment.

“Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L ), a perennial warm-seaso

“Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass established by seed has been AZD8186 purchase recommended by

the US Department of Energy as a model herbaceous biofuel crop. Neoteric seeds may be dormant resulting in delayed and sporadic germination and emergence, jeopardizing establishment of a good plant stand. Switchgrass dormancy may be alleviated by mechanical or chemical scarification, stratification, and after-ripening, suggesting physical and/or physiological dormancy. The underlying mechanisms and physiology of dormancy in these seeds; however, are not well understood. This work investigates the physiology of switchgrass seed dormancy; first by identifying the contribution of the different switchgrass structures (glumes, lemma, palea, pericarp/testa, endosperm) on regulating germination, and then by testing specific mechanisms of coat-imposed dormancy. We sequentially removed structures of freshly harvested seeds of two upland (Cave-in-Rock, Trailblazer) and two lowland (Alamo, Kanlow) cultivars. The main structure inhibiting germination was the pericarp/testa, with the lemma and palea (bracts) having a secondary effect that differed by genotype. Seeds with glumes and bracts removed, and pericarp/testa cut with endosperm either attached or removed just above the embryo, resulted in high germination percentages and rate, indicating

no morphological dormancy, and no effect of the endosperm on germination. The lemma, palea, and pericarp/testa were neither a barrier for water uptake nor contained inhibitory compounds. By adjusting the oxygen concentration this website of the environment and the physical integrity of the covering structures, we found the enclosing structures acted as barriers to oxygen. Puncturing the pericarp/testa of seeds with glumes and bracts removed, enhanced germination at 1, 10,21 or 100% oxygen. Combined results showed that the structural integrity of the Sotrastaurin order pericarp/testa (primary) and lemma/palea (secondary) influenced germination, suggesting an important mechanical effect of these layers as barriers for

radicle protrusion. Therefore, a combination of seed-coat mechanisms regulates germination in switchgrass seeds. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVES: Acute retinal necrosis is a rapidly progressive and devastating viral retinitis caused by the herpesvirus family. Systemic acyclovir is the treatment of choice; however, the progression of retinal lesions ceases approximately 2 days after treatment initiation. An intravitreal injection of acyclovir may be used an adjuvant therapy during the first 2 days of treatment when systemically administered acyclovir has not reached therapeutic levels in the retina. The aims of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of acyclovir in the rabbit vitreous after intravitreal injection and the functional effects of acyclovir in the rabbit retina.

“Pediatric pacemaker (PM) implants comprise less than 1 %

“Pediatric pacemaker (PM) implants comprise less than 1 % of all PM implants. This study aimed to investigate permanent cardiac pacing among the pediatric population, identifying different indications and complications of pediatric cardiac pacing, especially focusing on the effect of the pacing sites, the SNS-032 mw PM lead type, and the indications for pacing. The current work is a cross-sectional study of 103 procedures for permanent PM insertion in pediatric patients between January 2001 and December 2010. The patients were followed up 1, 3, and 6 months after implantation, then every 6 months or as needed. Evaluation included routine clinical examination, electrocardiography, chest X-ray, echocardiography,

and a full analysis of the pacing system measurements. The ages of the patients ranged from 0.09 to 12 years (median, 2.3 years). The most common indication for pacing was postoperative complete heart bock, noted in 54 patients (52.4 %). Transvenous endocardial PM insertion was performed in 92 procedures (89.3 %), whereas transthoracic epicardial insertion was performed in 11 procedures (10.7 %). The most common site of pacing was the right ventricular apex (n = 64, 62 %), followed by the right ventricular outflow PLX4032 molecular weight tract (n = 25, 24.3 %). Transthoracic epicardial PM insertion was associated with a significantly higher percentage

and greater severity of complications. In this study, 65 % of the patients with left ventricle (LV) dilation before pacing showed a significant improvement in LV dimensions and function after pacing. This was noted only in those with endocardially inserted PM leads in both the congenital and the postoperative groups regardless of the pacing site. Endocardial PM insertion in children is a safe procedure with fewer complications and a lower ventricular threshold than the epicardial route. Permanent single-chamber right ventricle pacing is

safe and can lead to significant improvement in LV function and dimensions. However, long-term follow-up assessment is needed for further evaluation.”
“OBJECTIVE: To investigate spatial patterns of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with socio-economic status in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil.

DESIGN: In a 4-year, retrospective, territory-based surveillance study of all new pulmonary TB cases conducted in Vitoria GSK923295 solubility dmso between 2002 and 2006, spatial patterns of disease incidence were compared using spatial clustering statistics (Anselin’s local indicators of spatial association [LISA] and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics), smoothed empirical Bayes estimates and model-predicted incidence rates. Spatial Poisson models were fit to examine the relationship between socio-economic status and TB incidence.

RESULTS: A total of 651 TB cases were reported across 78 neighborhoods, with rates ranging from 0 to 129 cases per 100 000 population. Moran’s I indicated strong spatial autocorrelation among incidence rates (0.399, P < 0.

07 per 5-kg weight gain; 95% CI: 0 00, 0 14; P = 0 05) but not at

07 per 5-kg weight gain; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.14; P = 0.05) but not at 4 y (SD: 0.02 per 5-kg weight gain; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.08; P = 0.55).

Conclusion: Appropriate pregnancy weight gain, as defined by 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, is linked to lower levels of adiposity in the offspring. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1745-51.”

patients with malignant cerebral infarction remains one of the foremost challenges in medicine. These patients are at high risk for progressive neurologic deterioration and death due to malignant cerebral edema, and they are best cared for in the intensive care unit of a comprehensive stroke center. Careful initial assessment of neurologic function and of findings on MRI, coupled with frequent reassessment of clinical and radiologic findings using CT or MRI are mandatory to promote the prompt initiation

of treatments that will ensure the best outcome in these patients. Significant deterioration Copanlisib chemical structure in either neurologic function or radiologic findings or both demand timely treatment using the best medical management, which may include osmotherapy (mannitol or hypertonic saline), endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Under appropriate circumstances, decompressive craniectomy may be warranted to improve outcome or to prevent death.”
“Treatment with neurotrophic agents might enhance selleck and/or prolong the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We compared the safety and efficacy of the neurotrophic compound Cerebrolysin (10 ml;

n=64), donepezil (10 mg; n=66) and a combination of both treatments (n=67) in mild-to-moderate beta-catenin phosphorylation (mini-mental state examination-MMSE score 12-25) probable AD patients enrolled in a randomized, double-blind trial. Primary end-points were global outcome (Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input; CIBIC+) and cognition (change from baseline in AD Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale+; ADAS-cog+) at week 28. Changes in functioning (AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living scale, ADCS-ADL) and behaviour (Neuropsychiatric Inventory, NPI) were secondary endpoints. Treatment effects in cognitive, functional and behavioral domains showed no significant group differences; whereas improvements in global outcome favored Cerebrolysin and the combination therapy. Cognitive performance improved in all treatment groups (mean+/-SD for Cerebrolysin: -1.7+/-7.5; donepezil: -1.2+/-6.1; combination: -2.3+/-6.0) with best scores in the combined therapy group at all study visits. Cerebrolysin was as effective as donepezil, and the combination of neurotrophic (Cerebrolysin) and cholinergic (donepezil) treatment was safe in mild-to-moderate AD. The convenience of exploring long-term synergistic effects of this combined therapy is suggested.”
“Background: Variation in meat and fish intakes has been associated with a risk of some cancers, but evidence for ovarian cancer is limited and inconsistent.

At the typical flux phi=phi(0)/2, a delocalizing effect is observ

At the typical flux phi=phi(0)/2, a delocalizing effect is observed in the presence of Rashba SO interaction, and, depending on the specific choices of SO interaction strength and AB flux the quantum network can be used as a spin filter. Our analysis may be inspiring in designing spintronic devices. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3532002]“
“Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence

and clinicoradiologic features of lung cancer detected at cardiac computed tomography (CT) and compare the detection rates at different field-of-view (FOV) settings.

Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for patient consent. Patients with lung cancer initially detected at CYT387 cardiac CT were identified by means of a retrospective search of a lung cancer registry patient database between January 2004 and December 2007. Patients known to have lung cancer at the time of cardiac CT were excluded. The prevalence and clinical and radiologic features of lung cancer were evaluated. The rates of lung cancer detection at three FOVs-limited and full FOV at

cardiac scanning and full FOV at thoracic scanning-were compared by using McNemar testing.

Results: The prevalence of lung cancer detected at CT was 0.31% (36 of 11 654 patients, 16 [44%] never smokers) and was higher in patients suspected HSP990 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor or known to have coronary artery disease (0.43% [24 of 5615

patients]) than in asymptomatic screening-examined patients (0.20% [12 of 5924 patients]) (P = www.selleckchem.com/products/MDV3100.html .0457). Adenocarcinoma was the most common (in 31 [86%] of 36 patients) histologic subtype. Of 34 non-small cell lung cancers, 23 (68%)-including 16 stage IA cancers-were resectable. Four (11%) and 19 (53%) of the 36 CT-depicted cancers were visible in limited and full FOV at cardiac scanning, respectively, and 17 (47%) were visible in full FOV at thoracic scanning only.

Conclusion: The prevalence of lung cancer at cardiac CT was 0.31%; and 68% of these malignancies were at a resectable stage. Use of a limited FOV at cardiac scanning led to a large majority (89% [32 of 36 cancers]) of the lung cancers detected at full thoracic scanning being missed; thus, inclusion of the entire chest at cardiac CT is advisable. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare congenital disorder. Seizures, stroke-like episodes, glaucoma, headache, and developmental delay are frequently associated features. An Internet-based questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of use, effectiveness, and safety of aspirin treatment in Sturge-Weber syndrome. Thirty-four of 98 subjects who completed the survey reported having used aspirin.

Thus, recent data from the study of children suggest that disorde

Thus, recent data from the study of children suggest that disorders in the control of inflammation, such as those that underlie familial Mediterranean fever and other autoinflammatory diseases, may predispose to vasculitis. Improved knowledge of mechanisms of disease, in turn, should pave the way for more targeted, Bromosporine effective, and tolerable therapies for children with systemic vasculitis.


International collaboration to study rare disorders such as pediatric vasculitis are demonstrating

disorders of inflammatory regulation that predispose to these diseases and may point toward new treatment approaches.”
“Introduction: Little evidence is available on the natural course of osteoarthritis (OA) development and the genes that protect and predispose individuals to it. This study was designed to compare strain-dependent development of OA and its association with tissue regeneration in mice. Two recombinant inbred lines LGXSM-6 and LGXSM-33 generated from LG/J and SM/J intercross were used. Previous studies indicated that LGXSM-6 can regenerate both articular cartilage and ear hole punch while LGXSM-33 cannot.

Methods: Transection of the medial meniscotibial ligament was performed on 10-week-old male mice to induce OA. Cartilage

damage was analyzed by histology and bone morphology was evaluated using micro-computed tomography (CT). Ear punches were performed and evaluated by measurement of residual hole diameter.

Results: Cartilage analysis showed that LGXSM-33 developed a significantly higher JNK-IN-8 inhibitor grade of OA than LGXSM-6. Bone analysis showed that LGXSM-33 had substantial subchondral bone and trabecular bone thickening 8 weeks post-surgery, while LGXSM-6 showed bone loss over time. We also confirmed

that LGXSM-6 can heal ear tissues significantly better than LGXSM-33.

Conclusions: OA was found to be negatively correlated with the degree of tissue regeneration. LGXSM-33, a poor healer of ear tissues (and articular cartilage), developed more OA compared to LGXSM-6, which had better regenerative ability for ear tissues and articular cartilage. The phenotypic differences observed here are due Histone Methyltransf inhibitor to genetic differences further suggesting that similar sets of physiological processes and gene variants may mediate variation in OA development and tissue regeneration. (C) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of reviewGlucocorticoids have a negative impact on bone through direct effects on bone cells and indirect effects on calcium absorption. Here, recent findings regarding glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, bone changes in patients with endogenous glucocorticoid derangements, and treatment of steroid-induced bone disease are reviewed.

No significant differences were found between two groups with res

No significant differences were found between two groups with respect to NEC and air leak. Conclusion: In conclusion, VG ventilation in combination with surfactant treatment significantly reduced both duration of mechanical ventilation and early neonatal oxygen related morbidities including BPD, ROP and IVH in preterm infants with RDS. This data favors the use of VG ventilation in respiratory support of premature infants.”
“With an increasing use of quantum

dots (QDs) in many applications, their potential hazard is of growing concern However, little is known about Selleckchem VX-680 their ecotoxicity especially in vivo In the present study, we employed freshwater macroinvertebrate, Daphnia magna to evaluate toxicity characteristics of cadmium selenide/zinc selenide (CdSe/ZnSe) in relation to surface coatings, e g, mercaptopropionic acid QD ((MPA)QD) and gum arabic/tri-n-octylphosphine oxide QD ((GA/TOPO)QD), and light conditions, i e, dark fluorescent light environmental level of ultraviolet (UV) light and sunlight The results of the present study showed that D magna was more susceptible to (GA/TOPO)QD exposure compared to (MPA)QD The surface coating Compound C supplier of QD appeared to determine the stability of QDs and hence the toxicity, potentially by size change of or the release of toxic components from QDs However (GA/TOPO)QD was still less

toxic than the equivalent level of CdCl(2) The toxicity of all the tested compounds increased by changing the light condition from dark to white fluorescence to UV-B light and to natural sunlight The effect of light condition on QDs toxicity could also be explained by photostability of

the QDs which would affect size of the particle release of toxic component ions, and generation of reactive oxygen species Considering increasing use of QDs in various applications, their environmental fates and corresponding toxic potentials deserve further investigation (C) 2009 Wiley periodicals Inc Environ Toxicol 25 593-600 GDC-0973 in vivo 2010″
“Objective: There are conflicting report on the association of HIV infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Most of these studies were from areas with low HIV burden. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of ASB in HIV positive pregnant women. Methods: A cross sectional study among HIV positive pregnant women seen at a large PMTCT clinic in Lagos Nigeria. The women were evaluated for ASB at first clinic attendance. Blood samples were also collected for viral load, CD4 count and hemoglobin levels assessment. Data were managed with SPSS for windows version 19. Results: 102 (18.1%) women out of 563 studied were found positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Ninety-seven (95.1%) of the positive samples yielded single bacterial isolates. Escherichia coli (44.3%) and Proteus mirabilis (21.6%) were the most common bacterial isolates.

Conclusion: The pLA measurements improve prediction of mortality,

Conclusion: The pLA measurements improve prediction of mortality, surgery, and MODS. Lactate may improve the identification of patients who require monitoring, resources, and resuscitation.”
“Objectives: To test the antimicrobial sensitivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis to a panel of eight orally see more administrable antibiotics in chronic periodontal diseases and to evaluate factors associated with periodontitis in adult patients.

Study Design: A total of fifty strains of P. gingivalis were isolated from one hundred and twenty adult patients with chronic perio-dontitis. Identification of bacteria was carried out by anaerobic culture and biochemical tests. Selected

colonies of P. gingivalis Transferase inhibitor were used to evaluate the antibacterial activities of penicillin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, clindamycin, doxy-cycline, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin.

Results: Most of the patients were female, age ranging between 40 to 50 years. Majority of the patients frequently had scaling and depths of periodontal pockets in infected teeth were 5-8 mm and most of them had hemorrhage during sampling. Susceptibility testing revealed a sensitivity of 100% of P. gingivalis to azithromycin, doxycycline and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid but lower susceptibilities were found

for the rest of antibiotic agents evaluated.

Conclusions: Frequent scaling in women aged between 40-50 years had positive correlation with chronic periodontitis. The application of antibiotics in conjuction with mechanical debridation, may reflect in the level of resistance of P. gingivalis in patients with chronic periodontal infections. This could suggest periodical antibiotic susceptibility testing is necessary to determine the efficacy of antimicrobial agents if the perfect curing of chronic periodontal diseases after mechanical debridation is meant. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the in vitro results. The only limitation

in this study was identification of bacteria to species rather Selisistat in vivo than subspecies level.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of several cancer-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and to explore its clinical significance.

Study Design. A total of 94 TSCC tissue specimens and matched adjacent normal tissue specimens were collected from patients undergoing surgery for TSCC. Differences in the expression of cancer-related lncRNAs were examined via quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. WST-1 assay and transwell migration assay were carried out to estimate the proliferation and migration abilities of TSCC cells with different expression levels of urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) lncRNA.