Monosaccharide composition of fractions isolated from guarana pow

Monosaccharide composition of fractions isolated from guarana powder is shown in Table 2. Fractions GD (I–III), GW (I–II) and GHW (I–II) had glucose Selleck MLN0128 (Glc) as the major component. The presence of starch in these fractions was confirmed by a Lugol iodine test. The presence of large amounts of starch (40–66%) in guarana seeds has been reported in the literature (Kuri, 2008 and Pagliarussi et al., 2002). The presence of starch as a contaminant in the hemicellulose fractions was also confirmed by the Lugol test, and we observed a decrease in the Glc content after treatment with α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. In addition to glucose,

GHW-I and GHW-II contained 12% and 23% uronic acid, respectively, indicating that the use of a high temperature allowed the extraction of pectic polysaccharides,

which usually comprise the soluble dietary fibre. Other monosaccharides that are typically present in pectins, such as arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and rhamnose (Rha), were also found. Among the hemicelluloses, the GHA fractions exhibited a high percentage of xylose (Xyl; 50–66%), suggesting the presence of xylans, which were probably from the secondary this website wall from the seed husks. The hemicellulose B fractions had higher levels of Glc (29–36%), followed by Xyl (25–34%), Ara (11–21%) and Gal (9–1%). Other monosaccharides, such as fucose (Fuc), Rha, manose (Man) and uronic acid, were also found in lower amounts. All of the hemicellulose fractions contained Fuc, probably arising from xyloglucans, which are the primary hemicellulose component in the primary cell wall of Dicotyledonae ( Morrison, 2001). The final insoluble residue that was obtained after the sequential extractions (GFR; 16% yield based on

dry and defatted powder) showed equivalent amounts of Glc (32%) and Xyl (33%), among other minor monosaccharides, indicating the presence of cellulose and hemicelluloses, which comprise the insoluble dietary fibre of guarana powder. To gain more information about the polysaccharides present in guarana powder, fractions GHW-II and GHA2-I were selected for purification and further characterisation. The information about the polysaccharides present in guarana powder may contribute to new applications in the food Acyl CoA dehydrogenase industry for the powder which is generated after the production of the syrup which is used for the preparation of soft drinks. The GHW-II fraction contained 23% uronic acid, indicating the presence of pectins, and was treated with amylase and amyloglucosidase to remove the starch (∼61%), resulting in the starch-free fraction GHW-IIET. The results of sugar analysis of the purified fraction (GHW-IIET) indicated 70% uronic acid and only 2% Glc (Table 2). Ara (19%), Gal (6%), Xyl (3%) and Rha (2%), which are usually found in pectic polysaccharides, were also detected.

0 cm long × 4 0 mm i d , 5 μm) containing the same stationary pha

0 cm long × 4.0 mm i.d., 5 μm) containing the same stationary phase. The samples were injected automatically

(10.0 μL). The separation and guard columns were controlled thermostatically at 40 °C and a 0.8 mL min−1 flow rate was applied, using a linear gradient of 0.2% formic acid in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B). The optimised gradient employed for the passion fruit extracts was: 0–10 min, 12–16% B in A and 10–30 min, 16–20% B in A. The chromatogram was monitored at 330 nm, and UV spectra LBH589 supplier of individual peaks were recorded in the range of 200–400 nm. The stoichiometric effect of the extracts on ROS production by PMN was measured by lucigenin-enhanced CL. Lucigenin is considered as a good chemiluminescence probe for measuring extracellular superoxide anions because it does not enter the cells (Caldefie-Chézet et al., 2002). This technique is used to measure the ability of the substances

in the extracts to neutralise superoxide anion-derived radical species produced during neutrophil stimulation. Fig. 2 shows that both healthy and PWV-infected P. edulis rind extracts had dose-dependent inhibitory Bortezomib nmr effects on CL response, with healthy rinds showing a slightly stronger effect. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 0.01 and 0.1 mg mL−1 for healthy rinds and between 0.1 and 1 mg mL−1 for infected rinds. These results suggest that the presence of PWV can affect the content of antioxidant molecules in rinds. It is well established that the profile of phenolic compounds can vary in plants infected by Thiamine-diphosphate kinase fungal pathogens, insects and viruses ( Chatterjee and Ghosh, 2008 and Lattanzio et al., 2006). PWV currently affects passion fruit plants in Brazil, where it is the most economically important viral disease of this tropical fruit crop. In addition to

reducing the productive life of an orchard from 36 to 18 months, the virus also causes significant loss of fruit yield and quality ( Trevisan et al., 2006). Contrary to the rind extracts, the pulp extracts of P. alata and P. edulis did not show a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on CL response and only the pulp extract of P. edulis presented a high inhibitory effect (98%) at 1 mg mL−1. Interestingly, the isoorientin standard (99% purity) at low concentration also showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on CL response, with a 50% inhibition estimated between 4 μg mL−1 and 0.4 μg mL−1. Since isoorientin is a molecule isolated from P. edulis, we can conclude that some elements contained in crude extract (such as sugars and proteins) may conceal the antioxidant activity of interesting polyphenolic molecules such as isoorientin. Rudnicki et al. (2007) demonstrated that the antioxidant activities of P. alata and P. edulis leaf extracts were significantly correlated with polyphenol content. Our results highlight that the fruit, especially the rind of P. edulis and P.

g various proteins [56] or stainless steel cleaned in different

g. various proteins [56] or stainless steel cleaned in different ways [49].

Exposure to 10 mM NaCl for 10 min resulted in a less polar surface, as indicated by a significantly reduced γ− value (p < 0.05, as determined by a student t-test Selleckchem Neratinib of unpaired data and unequal variance) compared to the freshly polished and aged coupons. It could not be concluded whether this difference, not observed after 24 h in the same medium, was due to additional surface contamination, or an exposure effect. The amount of released iron during the exposures (see Table 3) correlated with the enrichment of chromium in the surface oxide as in Fig. 1. The correlation between released iron and chromium enrichment of the surface oxide is well-documented for stainless steel in its passive state [31], [57], [58] and [59]. It is explained by a preferential release of iron compared with chromium that results in a more passive chromium-rich surface oxide over time. No clear correlation was observed between

the Fe/Cr ratio in the surface oxide and the calculated γ− values for any conditions. This is in agreement with some literature findings [49], but in contrast with other findings for γ− values Pexidartinib datasheet exceeding 25 mJ/m2 [60]. Surface treatments with HNO3 or NaOH both resulted in relatively high amounts of released iron, Table 3, a pronounced enrichment of chromium in the surface oxide, Fig. 1c, and relatively low observed water contact angles and high calculated γ− values. The latter is most probably related to a reduced surface contamination. No significant differences in static contact angles or chromium enrichment in the surface oxide were observed among samples treated for 24 h in citric acid, or passivated by

HNO3, or after HNO3 passivation and 24 h exposure in citric acid in sequence, Fig. 2. This may be connected to relatively low amounts of surface contamination due to relatively rapid surface processes. Thalidomide Such processes could be electrochemical corrosion (oxidation of metal) and ligand-induced chemical or electrochemical surface oxide dissolution [11], and adsorption of citrate, further discussed below. The HNO3 passivation pre-treatment, which results in the formation of a stable passive surface oxide of high electrochemical barrier properties [6] and [61], caused, as expected, significantly lower released amounts of iron into citric acid, Fig. 2c. It could be argued that a lack of correlation between surface composition and wettability/surface energy is due to the fact that the chromium oxidation state remained trivalent throughout all investigations. Previous investigations have however not been able to show any relationship between the surface composition of stainless steel and its wettability properties, even when changing the chromium oxidation state at the surface from trivalent to hexavalent chromium by means of oxygen plasma treatment [49].

, 1999; cf Monti, Parsons, & Osherson, 2012) As both systems re

, 1999; cf. Monti, Parsons, & Osherson, 2012). As both systems represent over serial channel, there are also certain structural similarities between language and the numeral system. Most importantly, the set elements, concatenation, embedding describes both systems. However, our numeral systems are structurally more complex than natural language, as they stipulate concatenation and embedding for each digit. In (unary, binary, decimal, hexadecimal or other – depending on the notation) point representation, numerical embedding can be depicted graphically

by […[x3[x2[x1]]]].[y1[y2[y3[…]]]], where x’s are integral and y’s are fractional digits. In both systems, the elements are Selleckchem JQ1 signs (i.e. form-meaning pairs) – ABT-888 cell line meaningful linguistic

units in language and numerals in the numeral system. Both numerical and semantic embedding are noncommutative: [1[2]] ≠ [2[1]] and [run + s] ≠ ∗s + run. However, the constraints that stipulate numerical and semantic embedding are very different. In positional notation, a succession of digits reflects their magnitude, but there is no universal principle of succession of meaningful linguistic units. The universal magnitude constraint on concatenation stipulates numerical embedding, much like grammatical constraints on concatenation stipulate semantic embedding. Thus, in both systems, embedding is stipulated by constraints on concatenation. In sum, there is evidence of the same elementary cognitive operations underlying language, number, and the numeral system. Embedding and concatenation are the general rules of structuring – viz., those of inward and outward expansion, respectively. In models of language evolution, there has been only one proposal of the inward expansion antedating the outward one. This proposal, now largely dismissed (Bickerton, 2003, Johansson, 2008, Sundquist, 2012 and Tallerman, 2007), is that of a holistic protolanguage by Wray, 1998 and Wray, 2000. Wray’s proposal was that holistic utterances of protolanguage were, in the advent of syntax, fractured into distinct words. The main counterargument to this, supported

by Johansson’s (2008) calculation, is Carnitine dehydrogenase that the structure of the holistic utterances would have been too ambiguous to yield distinct form-meaning pairs (i.e. words) for the fractioning. Thus, the alternative hypothesis, that of the initial outward expansion by concatenation, would have to be true. Both modern language and the numeral system have constraints on concatenation that stipulate noncommutative embedding (semantic and numerical embedding, respectively). However, the constraints themselves are different. The observed numeral systems obey the universal magnitude constraint, but there is no universal constraint on concatenation in language. Instead, linguistic concatenation is constrained by grammar, i.e. language-specific noncommutative concatenation.

, 2008) Tree cutting and fire are two of the main management act

, 2008). Tree cutting and fire are two of the main management activities affecting forest understory dynamics (Selmants

and Knight, 2003, Ares et al., 2010 and Halpern and Lutz, 2013). For example, different methods of tree cutting can differentially influence understories, and a particular cutting method could affect plant cover differently than it affects species richness (Dodson et al., 2007, Kreyling et al., 2008 and Knapp et al., 2013). Similarly, plant groups, such as native and non-native species, could respond differently to management activities (Abella and Covington, PD-0332991 cell line 2004, Sutherland and Nelson, 2010 and Fiedler et al., 2013). The imprint of major events in forests on

understory plant communities can be long-lived, EX 527 research buy such as persistent effects to plant diversity from Roman clearing of French forests 2000 years ago (Dambrine et al., 2007). Undesirable legacies of forest practices might be avoided if we have a foundation of clear insights on impacts to understory communities. To help provide such a foundation, systematic reviews are emerging tools for evaluating evidence for ecological questions, including effects of forest management activities (e.g., Rosenvald and Lõhmus, 2008, Verschuyl et al., 2011 and Duguid and Ashton, 2013). Systematic reviews are complementary to traditional narrative reviews, but differ by having reproducible methods for locating literature, criteria for including or excluding studies, and an evaluation of evidence from reproducibly synthesized primary data (Pullin and

Stewart, 2006). Systematic reviews and statistical meta-analyses are not synonymous: data gathered by a systematic review can be analyzed with or without a statistical meta-analysis, and meta-analysis can be applied to numerous data sets other than those assembled through a systematic review (Koricheva et al., 2013). Here, we conducted a systematic review of the effects of tree cutting and fire on understory vegetation in Adenosine mixed conifer forests of interior western North America. Mixed conifer forests are considered among North America’s most difficult for fire management, and conservation of these forests is currently of keen interest (Agee, 1993, Klenner et al., 2008 and Jain et al., 2012). Contemporary conditions of mixed conifer forests differ from those before or during initial Euro-American settlement (Parsons and DeBenedetti, 1979, Covington et al., 1994, Minnich et al., 1995 and Reynolds et al., 2013). Major changes to fire regimes, tree structure and composition, forest floor and light conditions, climate, and introduction of livestock and exotic species may all influence understory vegetation (Battaglia and Shepperd, 2007 and Knapp et al., 2013).

In summary, both participants experienced a decrease in the frequ

In summary, both participants experienced a decrease in the frequency of their binge episodes throughout the course of the intervention, and these decreases were largely maintained at the 3-month follow-up (see Table 3). The average number of binge INCB024360 solubility dmso eating episodes per week across both participants at pretreatment was 5.7, which decreased to 2.0 per week at posttreatment, and 1.3 per week at follow-up. The improvements were particularly significant in Participant 1, who no longer met criteria for BED at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Similarly, improvements in body image flexibility were observed

across both participants throughout the course of study. At pretreatment, the mean body image flexibility score was 34.5. During the course of ACT intervention, the mean score was 46.7, followed by 43.0 at follow-up. The current study sought to investigate the effectiveness RGFP966 of a 10-week ACT individual intervention for two women diagnosed with BED and offers guidance for clinicians on the use of ACT for this disorder. The average amount of weekly binge eating across both participants decreased

at posttreatment, and the reduction remained at follow-up. One participant no longer met criteria for BED at posttreatment. The other participant remained symptomatic at posttreatment and follow-up, although there was reduction of binge eating in frequency Tacrolimus (FK506) and the volume of food consumed during a binge at both assessment points. Increases in body image flexibility were observed in both participants throughout the course of study, and improvements in body image flexibility corresponded to reductions in disordered eating. The present ACT intervention was also consistent with literature on emotion regulation and its role in disordered eating, which suggests that binge eating functions as a method of attempting to escape or distract oneself from difficult thoughts and emotions (Hayaki, 2009 and Polivy and Herman, 2002). In practice, various ACT techniques

were used to undermine the rigid use of these regulation strategies so that they did not interfere with daily functioning, while also helping to shift participants’ focus to pursuing values-consistent living. At follow-up, both participants reported that they enjoyed and benefited from focusing on valued living rather than binge eating exclusively. They found it useful to incorporate skills for broader functioning in order to undermine maladaptive regulation strategies. With regard to experiential exercises, both participants reported that the exercises were helpful in learning how to relate to negative internal experiences in more adaptive ways. They also suggested that they would have liked to engage in more of these types of exercises throughout treatment.

WNV can cause poliomyelitis-like illness or acute flaccid paralys

WNV can cause poliomyelitis-like illness or acute flaccid paralysis in WNV-infected

persons, which is histologically confirmed in the grey matter of the anterior spinal cord and in the brainstem of postmortem tissues (Doron et al., 2003, Fratkin et al., 2004, Jeha et al., 2003, Sejvar Z-VAD-FMK in vitro et al., 2005 and Sejvar et al., 2003b). Similar histopathology occurs in WNV-infected hamsters (Morrey et al., 2008b, Samuel et al., 2007, Siddharthan et al., 2009 and Xiao et al., 2001) and mice (Hunsperger and Roehrig, 2006) where the ventral cord has lymphocytic infiltration, perivascular cuffing, and neurophagia. Similar signs are documented with nearly all flavivirus encephalitides, i.e., Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (Johnson, 1987), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus (Gelpi et al., 2005), and the murine Modoc virus (Leyssen et al., 2003). Observing histopathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS), however, does not necessarily cause or indicate the types of neurological deficits. For example, the spinal cord functions are vast and diverse, where the cord acts as a conduit for descending motor functions, as a conduit for ascending

sensory information, and as a center for coordinating sensory/motor reflexes. Essentially, it is a conduit between the brain and nearly all other body functions. Therefore, histopathological damage to the spinal cord by WNV could affect a wide range of neurological disease phenotypes. Since WNV clearly causes motor function deficits in Selleckchem Fulvestrant human subjects, human clinical procedures employed for evaluating WNND and other motor diseases have been adapted for measurement of motor functions in rodents infected with WNV. In neurodegenerative diseases such as poliomyelitis (Ohka and Nomoto, 2001) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Rashidipour and Chan, 2008 and Shefner et al., 2006), the loss of motor neurons can be clinically detected by using electrophysiological motor unit

number estimation (MUNE) (Dantes and McComas, 1991), where a motor unit consists of a motor neuron and all its associated muscle fibers. Since a presumptive use of MUNE in the Clomifene human WNV infection appears to be a possible marker for muscle weakness and clinical recovery (Cao et al., 2005), the MUNE procedure was adapted for use in hamsters (Siddharthan et al., 2009). To perform the MUNE procedure, the rostral sciatic nerve is stimulated with incremental increases of voltage. The resulting M-wave depolarization and polarization voltages are recorded at the plantar aspect of the hind limb. As the stimulus is increased, more motor units are recruited or activated. The increased activation of motor units is detected by incremental jumps in the amplitude of the M-wave. The more incremental jumps that are detected, the more motor units the animal possesses.

1) Considering the mismatch between negative intraluminal pressu

1). Considering the mismatch between negative intraluminal pressure and the decreased airflow arriving through the upper airways, OSA may not only result from an upper

airway obstruction, but it could also be caused by an imbalance in lung volume compared to upper airway size. Thus, various anatomical causes together with decreased XII activation are important contributors to the pharyngeal collapse and thus to the airway occlusion in OSA (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). Multiple neuronal mechanisms contribute to a sleep-related decrease in XII activation as both neurotransmitter and neuromodulatory systems undergo drastic state dependent changes. As demonstrated in intracellular recordings, glutamatergic and GABAergic mechanisms (Chase et al., 1989, Funk et al.,

1997, Selleckchem EPZ 6438 Soja et al., 1987 and Soja et al., 1991) as well as a powerful glycinergic premotor inhibitory system likely contribute to the REM specific decrease in XII motoneuron activity (Yamuy et al., 1999). However, the degree of inhibition may only be detectable in intracellular recordings, while active inhibition is difficult to demonstrate in EMG recordings (Funk et al., 2011). This difficulty may partly explain why the relative importance of fast neurotransmission Galunisertib cell line remains a matter of discussion (Chan et al., 2006, Morrison et al., 2003a and Morrison et al., 2003b). In addition to increased active inhibition by fast synaptic transmitters, there is also a pronounced sleep related decrease in the activity of noradrenergic (Aston-Jones and Bloom, 1981) and serotonergic neurons (Jacobs and Fornal, 1991 and Leung and Mason, 1999) suggesting that the loss of noradrenergic and serotonergic neuromodulatory inputs play critical roles (Fenik et al., 2005a, Funk et al., 2011, Horner, 2008, Horner, 2009, Kubin et al., 1998 and Ladewig et al., 2004). This hypothesis is consistent across various manipulations in unrestrained animals (Chan et al., 2006, Morrison

et al., 2003a, Sood et al., 2005 and Sood et al., 2007), slice preparations (Funk et al., 1994 and Viemari and Ramirez, 2006), and with research in the so-called carbachol model for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (Fenik et al., 2004, Fenik et al., 2005a, Fenik et al., 2005b, Fenik et al., 2005c and Fenik et al., 2008). The noradrenergic neurons from the A5 and A7 regions converge at the level of the XII motoneurons (Aldes et al., 1992) and seem to have their effect through α1 adrenergic receptor activation (Parkis et al., 1995, Selvaratnam et al., 1998 and Volgin et al., 2001). Interestingly, the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), an area critical for breathing also receives noradrenergic and serotonergic inputs and is activated by a variety of serotonergic and adrenergic receptors (Doi and Ramirez, 2008, Doi and Ramirez, 2010, Lalley et al., 1995, Pena and Ramirez, 2002, Ptak et al., 2009, Tryba et al., 2006, Viemari et al., 2011 and Viemari and Ramirez, 2006).

(2008) The mean stop-signal delay was calculated and then subtra

(2008). The mean stop-signal delay was calculated and then subtracted from the mean untrimmed response time for all go trials. The overall mean SSRT was 262 ms (SD = 35 ms). Further analysis of the distribution of scores failed to observe significant evidence of significant skew (.20, SE = .25) or kurtosis (.46, SE = .49). As predicted, a significant negative correlation was observed between SSRT and RIF-z, r = −.22, p = .03. As shown in Fig. 3, faster SSRT scores predicted greater levels of retrieval-induced forgetting. This finding replicates the results in the category-plus-stem condition of click here Experiment 1, and confirms the prediction that retrieval-induced

forgetting is positively related to inhibitory control. Importantly, the relationship between retrieval-induced forgetting and CDK inhibitor SSRT could not be explained by greater strengthening of practiced items during retrieval practice for subjects with faster SSRTs. SSRT scores did not predict greater benefits from retrieval practice on the final test (r = .10, p = .32), and the correlation between retrieval-induced forgetting and SSRT remained significant even when controlling for variance in these benefits (pr = −.20, p < .05). The present findings support the correlated costs and benefits framework of

inhibitory control. Inhibition has the capacity to both impair and facilitate cognitive processes and, as a consequence, predicting the relationship between hypothesized individual differences in inhibitory control ability and inhibitory aftereffect phenomena (like retrieval-induced forgetting) requires a careful consideration of how they are measured. For example, in the present example of retrieval-induced forgetting, although significant negative correlations were observed between stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) and retrieval-induced forgetting in the category-plus-stem and item-recognition conditions, a significant positive correlation

was observed in the category-cued Progesterone condition. That is, participants with faster SSRTs, indicating better inhibitory control abilities (Logan & Cowan, 1984), exhibited more retrieval-induced forgetting in the item-specific conditions than did participants with slower SSRTs, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the category-cued final test condition. This pattern confirms the predictions made by the correlated costs and benefits framework (Anderson & Levy, 2007): when a category-cued test is employed, participants become vulnerable to interference at final test, thus increasing the proportion of the retrieval-induced forgetting effect caused by interference and reducing its relationship to the measure of inhibition. We predicted that the correlation between inhibitory control ability and retrieval-induced forgetting would be less positive in the category-cued condition than in the category-plus-stem condition, which was confirmed. However, this relationship was not simply less positive, it was significantly negative.

One day after the last OVA challenge via nasal inhalation (Day 25

One day after the last OVA challenge via nasal inhalation (Day 25), mice were exposed to increasing doses of methacholine using an ultrasonic nebulizer (Pari, Starnberg, Germany) for 150 s at each concentration. AHR was calculated in enhanced pause (Penh) as we previously described [14]. The formula used was as follows: Penh = (Te/RT-1) × PEF/PIF, where Te = expiration time (s), RT = relaxation time (s), REF = peak expiratory

flow rate (mL/s) and IF = peak inspiratory flow rate (mL/s). On Day 26, to obtain BALF, mice were sacrificed with a lethal dose of ketamine and xylazine, and BALF was collected from tracheas; 1.8 mL of PBS was introduced to the lungs, and more than 1.5 mL of buffer was consistently

retrieved. BALF cells were analyzed as previously learn more described [17]. Briefly, differential cell counts were performed by counting cytospin preparations stained with selleckchem Diff-Quick (Dade Behring, Düdingen, Switzerland). Mice were bled on Day 26, and blood samples were stored at 4°C overnight and then centrifuged at 2,800 × g for 10 min to obtain sera. OVA-specific immunoglobulin (IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a) levels in serum were measured by ELISA, according to the manufacturer’s instructions (BD Pharmingen, San Jose, CA, USA). Levels of cytokine production by peribronchial lymphocytes were measured as previously described [18]. Briefly, on Day 26, peribronchial lymph nodes were isolated and prepared as single cell suspensions. Cells (2 × 105 cells/mL) were then plated on 96-well microplates and cultured for 3 d with OVA (50 mg/mL) in 200 mL RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Supernatants were analyzed for IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) (BD Pharmingen), and IL-13 (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) by ELISA, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. OVA-specific cytokine levels were then calculated. On Day 26, after obtaining BALF, the lungs and tracheas were resected and fixed

overnight in 4% formalin. Specimens were then dehydrated in an alcohol series, embedded in paraffin wax, and sectioned at 5 μm. Sections were placed on glass slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined under a light microscope. selleck inhibitor Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD), and all statistical comparisons were performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Duncan’s multiple comparison test. SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was accepted for p values < 0.05. Inflammatory cells were significantly increased in BALF in the PBS-treated control group (OVA + Alum), but treatment with WG or RG significantly decreased total cells including macrophages and other inflammation-related immune cells (Fig. 3).