Significant associations between the presence of white matter hyp

Significant associations between the presence of white matter hyperintensities and longer disease duration (14.4 vs. 19.9 years, p = 0.004), higher headache frequency (4.1 vs. 5.5 attacks/month,

p = 0.017), hyperhomocysteinemia (incidence of hyperintensity is 9/9 = 100%, p = 0.009) and thyroid gland dysfunction (incidence of hyperintensity is 8/14 = 57.1%, p = 0.038) were found. These data support the theory that both the disease duration and the attack frequency have a key role in the formation of migraine-related brain white matter hyperintensities, but the effects of comorbid diseases may also contribute to the development of the hyperintensities.”
“Eu3+ doped yttrium aluminum garnet BEZ235 solubility dmso (YAG) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy including vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) PL spectroscopy. XRD confirmed that each and every phases of YAG were present, indicating very good quality of sample. The crystallite size, estimated

by XRD, increased from 10 to 30 nm with annealing temperatures and significant changes in morphology with annealing temperature was also found in TEM study. The particles were in spherical shape initially but agglomeration of particles started at higher temperatures resulting in hierarchical nanostructures having dimension more than 50 nm. The annealed YAG:Eu3+ hierarchical find more nanostructures showed strong red luminescence under VUV excitation, corresponding to D-5(0)-> F-7(2) transition. PL spectra selleck screening library also showed significant increase in luminescence intensity with

the increase in annealing temperature. Time evolution studies were also performed continuously for 150 days to check the stability of prepared hierarchical nanostructures and were found to be extremely stable, making them one of the most feasible candidate for red phosphor and seize great potential in flat panel display application that underlies the importance of the current work.”
“Objective Patients with pain 3 years after injury are at risk of lifetime pain. It is not known if the predictors of chronic pain at 3 years are the same as those for earlier time points or whether other factors become important. Clarifying these factors will aid our understanding of the development of long-term pain and further inform the development of models for screening and early intervention for pain in the aftermath of injury. Design Patients admitted to two trauma centers underwent a comprehensive physical and psychological assessment of known and potential risk factors for chronic pain during their index admission.

“Intracellular calcium dynamics is critical for many funct

“Intracellular calcium dynamics is critical for many functions of cerebellar granule cells (GrCs) including membrane excitability, synaptic plasticity, apoptosis, and regulation of gene transcription. Recent measurements of calcium

responses in GrCs to depolarization and synaptic stimulation reveal spatial compartmentalization and heterogeneity within dendrites of these cells. However, the main determinants of local calcium dynamics in GrCs are still poorly understood. One reason is that there have been few published studies of calcium dynamics in intact GrCs in their native environment. In the absence of complete information, biophysically realistic models are useful for testing whether specific Ca2+ handling mechanisms may account for existing experimental observations. Simulation results can be used to identify critical measurements that would discriminate Selleckchem PLX4720 between different models. In this review, we briefly describe experimental studies and phenomenological models of Ca2+ signaling in GrC, and then discuss a particular biophysical model, with a special emphasis on an approach for obtaining information regarding C59 Wnt clinical trial the distribution of Ca2+ handling systems under conditions of incomplete experimental data. Use of this approach suggests that Ca2+ channels and fixed endogenous Ca2+ buffers are highly heterogeneously distributed in GrCs. Research avenues for investigating calcium dynamics

in GrCs by a combination of experimental and modeling studies are proposed.”
“The intensive studies carried out in many scientific laboratories and the efforts of numerous pharmaceutical companies have led to the development of drugs which are able to effectively inhibit HIV proliferation. At present, a number of antiretroviral agents with different mechanisms of

action are available. Unfortunately, long-term use of antiretroviral drugs, however, does not remain indifferent to the patient and can cause significant side effects.

In the present work, the antiretroviral drugs with a nephrotoxicity potential most commonly Pictilisib used in clinical practice are described. In the review attention has also been focused on the nephropathy resulting from the HIV infection alone and the influence of genetic factors on the occurrence of pathological changes in the kidney.”
“OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of physician assessment with a new multivariate index assay in identifying high-risk ovarian tumors.

METHODS: The multivariate index assay was evaluated in women scheduled for surgery for an ovarian tumor in a prospective, multi-institutional trial involving 27 primary-care and specialty sites throughout the United States. Preoperative serum was collected, and results for the multivariate index assay, physician assessment, and CA 125 were correlated with surgical pathology. Physician assessment was documented by each physician before surgery.

Target cancer risks (TRs) of ingesting As contents at fish ponds

Target cancer risks (TRs) of ingesting As contents at fish ponds were spatially mapped to assess potential risks to human health. The analyzed results reveal that clam farmed at the western coastal ponds and milkfish farmed at the southwestern coastal ponds have high risks to human health, whereas tilapia cultivated mainly at the inland ponds only has high risks at the 95th percentile of TR. Mullet in general has low risks to human health. RAD001 Moreover, to decrease risks, this study suggests reducing the use of As-affected groundwater at clam and milkfish ponds due to high bioconcentration

factor (BCF) of ciam and inorganic As accumulation ratio of milkfish. The integrated GIS-based approach can provide fishery administrators with an effective management strategy at specific fish ponds with high risks to human health. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 25: 113-123, 2010.”
“Comparison of lumbosacral dysplasia between normal individuals and patients with low and high grade spondylolisthesis has not been done previously.

The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between lumbosacral dysplasia and severity of slip in young patients with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis.

Postero-anterior and lateral radiographs of 120 normal individuals and 131 patients with developmental spondylolisthesis (91 low and 40 high grades) were reviewed. Quantitative evaluation of lumbosacral dysplasia was done using 6 criteria involving the degree of laminar dysplasia, degree of facet dysplasia, size of L5 transverse processes, L5/S1 disc height, type of sacral doming and L5 KU-57788 datasheet lumbar index. Subjects were categorized as having no/low, moderate or severe dysplasia based on the total dysplasia score. Comparisons in total dysplasia score between normal, low grade and high grade groups were performed and the correlation between degree of dysplasia and percentage of slip was assessed.

Most normal individuals (88.3%) had no/low dysplasia; most patients with low grade spondylolisthesis (61.5%) had moderate dysplasia, while most patients with high grade

spondylolisthesis (72.5%) had severe dysplasia. There was a significant difference in dysplasia between normal individuals and patients with spondylolisthesis. Dysplasia also varied significantly between low and high selleck chemicals llc grade spondylolisthesis. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.63) between severity of dysplasia and percentage of slip.

There is a significant relationship between the severity of spondylolisthesis and lumbosacral dysplasia, with mainly no/low dysplasia observed in controls and increasing total dysplasia scores in higher grades of spondylolisthesis. In addition, a variable degree of dysplasia was found within groups with low or high grade spondylolisthesis, suggesting that different subgroups of patients exist with regard to dysplasia.

“OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable preimplantation genetic

“OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable preimplantation genetic diagnosis protocol for antihuman platelet antigen-1 incompatibility for a family in whom antenatal treatment was not possible because of the mother’s hypersensitivity to intravenous

immunoglobulin (IVIG).

METHODS: Haplotypes were constructed from genomic DNA of the family members. A polymerase chain reaction protocol that included eight microsatellite polymorphic markers and the ITGB3-specific (T196C, rs5918) polymorphism were multiplexed to be used in a single cell protocol, and single blastomeres were analyzed.

RESULTS: In one preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycle, out of 28 retrieved oocytes, 24 embryos fertilized and 12 underwent biopsy. Three embryos were found to be antihuman platelet antigen-1b/1b homozygotes and two were Temsirolimus in vivo transferred. This cycle resulted in an uneventful pregnancy and birth of a healthy child.

CONCLUSION: In cases in which there is antihuman platelet antigen

incompatibility and IVIG cannot be administered, preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a reliable alternative Alvocidib clinical trial to enable birth of unaffected children. (Obstet Gynecol 2012;119:338-43) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318242a11d”
“Introduction: Cancer-related carbohydrate epitopes, which are regarded as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, are carried on the main acute phase proteins. It is not clear, however, if the glycosylation profile is similar in different glycoproteins, or it is protein specific to some extent. The aim of the study was to compare fucosylation, alpha 2,3 sialylation and expression of sialyl-Lewis(x) epitopes (sLe(x)) in the serum as a whole, AGP and haptoglobin of small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with respect to healthy subjects

as well as the cancer stage and its histological type.

Material and Methods: Thirty-three NSCLC, 13 SCLC patients and 20 healthy volunteers were included AZD1208 in the study. Carbohydrate epitopes were detected by means of their reactivity with specific lectins and monoclonal anti-sLe(x) antibodies in direct or dual-ligand ELISA tests.

Results: Significantly increased fucosylation was found in total serum in both cancer groups and in NSCLC haptoglobin. No difference was observed in SCLC haptoglobin or alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein in both cancer groups. Also alpha 2,3 sialylation was elevated in total serum, but not in alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein. This type of sialylation was undetectable in haptoglobin by means of MAA reactivity, in both healthy and cancer subjects. Complete sLe(x) antigens were overexpressed in total NSCLC serum and SCLC AGP, and their level was considerably lowered in cancer haptoglobin.

Discussion: Typical acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and AGP, exhibit different glycosylation profiles in lung cancer. Alterations observed in haptoglobin reflected the disease process better than those in AGP.

Conclusions: The

Conclusions: The AMN-107 concentration combination of mandibular indices, along with surveys on the risk of fracture, can be useful as indicators of early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Visual and morphometric indices appear to be especially important in the orthopantomograms. Photodensitometry indices and the trabecular pattern are used in periapical X-rays. Studies on mandibular dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry are inconclusive.”
“Two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking (2DST) is a new technique independent of ventricular geometry but not independent of preload and afterload. Using 2DST, this

study aimed to investigate differences in right ventricular (RV) function and intraventricular dyssynchrony in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) before and after preload-reducing stage 2 palliation. For 31 HLHS patients, this study compared global longitudinal strain (S) and strain rate (SR) as well as regional

peak systolic longitudinal S, SR, and velocity (V) in six RV segments on echocardiograms before and after stage 2 surgery. Intraventricular dyssynchrony was assessed by calculating the standard deviation of the intervals from the beginning of systole to peak S, SR, and V. Global S (-16.7 +/- A 5.0 vs -15.6 +/- A 5.5%) and global SR (-1.2 +/- A 0.3 vs -1.2 +/- A 0.3 s(-1)) did not change after surgery. After surgery, V decreased in the mid lateral segment (2.3 +/- A 1.3 vs 1.7 +/- A 0.9 cm/s; p = 0.01) and the basal lateral segment (3.6 +/- A 1.1 vs 2.8 +/- A 1.0 cm/s; p = 0.001), whereas

S was lower in both of these segments (-19.9% +/- A 6.0% this website selleck compound vs -17.4% +/- A 6.3%; p = 0.01 and 20.0 +/- A 5.1 vs 15.8 +/- A 7.1%; p = 0.002, respectively). Segmental SR and dyssynchrony did not change. Decreased V and S in the RV free wall could be explained by reduced preload of the systemic RV after stage 2 palliation.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the agreement between cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographs for initial orthodontic evaluation. This study was not meant to test differences between imaging modalities or to indicate superiority of one technique.

Study Design. Thirty-eight subjects with both panoramic and CBCT images were retrospectively collected. Eight observers answered 14 observational questions. The observation was repeated after 4 weeks.

Results. CBCT images yielded better agreement between 2 observer groups (orthodontic residents and radiologists) and better inter-and intraobserver agreement. The agreement between panoramic radiographs and CBCT scans was moderate.

Conclusions. If CBCT is a priori present in a case with justified indications, it has the potential to provide valuable diagnostic information for initial orthodontic evaluation and extra information for treatment planning.

The MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists who were not aware

The MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists who were not aware of the initial CT results or the clinical situation of the patients. Outcome was determined 6 months after head injury by means of the extended version of the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The prognostic capacity of the different factors related to outcome was compared by the analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) for each factor.

There exists a clear relation between the depth of the traumatic lesions shown on MRI, and their classification

by the proposed scale, and the outcome of patients suffering traumatic brain injury determined by different scales 6 months GW2580 chemical structure after injury.

The anatomical substrate of TBI depicted by MRI could be a useful prognostic tool in patients suffering moderate and severe head injury. Patients with a score of 4 or less on the motor subscale of the GCS scale

are those who could benefit most from the prognostic information provided by MRI.”
“Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA), sometimes called Still’s disease, is a systemic inflammatory disease classified within the spectrum of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It is an orphan disease with often a chronic course and a major impact on the affected children and their families. This disorder is unique in terms of clinical manifestations, prognosis and response to conventional immunosuppressants. The objectives of this review are to describe SoJIA and emphasise the recent advances in the pathogenesis selleck kinase inhibitor and treatment, which have transformed the care and the prognosis of this potentially life-threatening paediatric condition.”
“The elytra of the Japanese

jewel beetle Chrysochroa fulgidissima are metallic green with purple stripes. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the elytral surface is approximately flat. The accordingly specular green and purple areas have, with normal illumination, 100-150 nm broad reflectance bands, peaking at about 530 and 700 nm. The bands shift progressively towards shorter wavelengths NCT-501 purchase with increasing oblique illumination, and the reflection then becomes highly polarized. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the epicuticle of the green and purple areas consists of stacks of 16 and 12 layers, respectively. Assuming gradient refractive index values of the layers between 1.6 and 1.7 and applying the classical multilayer theory allowed modelling of the measured polarization-and angle-dependent reflectance spectra. The extreme polarized iridescence exhibited by the elytra of the jewel beetle may have a function in intraspecific recognition.”
“A total of 25 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were included in the study. Patients received statin (20 mg daily) postoperatively for 2 weeks.

“Background: The proportion of adults with positive varice

“Background: The proportion of adults with positive varicella serology is lower in populations from tropical countries. Therefore immigrants to countries with a temperate climate

are at risk of acquiring varicella infection during adulthood.

Methods: We tested two different strategies to prevent varicella outbreaks in housing facilities for asylum seekers arriving in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland. The first strategy consisted of a rapid response with isolation of the affected individuals and vaccination of the susceptible contacts. Batimastat nmr The second strategy consisted of a general vaccination upon arrival of all asylum seekers aged 15-39 years with no history of chickenpox.

Results: From May 2008 to January 2009 we applied the rapid response strategy. Eight hundred and fifty-eight asylum seekers arrived in the Canton and an attack rate of 2.8% (seven cases among 248 exposed asylum seekers) was observed. The mean cost was US$ 31.35 per asylum seeker. The general vaccination strategy was applied from February 2009 to May 2010, a period during which 966 asylum seekers were Nutlin 3 registered. This second strategy completely prevented any outbreak at a mean cost of US$ 83.85 per asylum seeker.

Conclusions: Of the two analyzed interventions to prevent varicella outbreaks in housing facilities for asylum seekers, the general vaccination strategy was more effective,

more sustainable, and ethically preferable, although more costly. (C) 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published

by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Many seabird populations are currently decreasing, especially albatrosses for which the primary threat is recognised to be mortality in fisheries. introduced predators, climate change and other factors such as diseases can also have large impacts on seabirds. Here, we assessed the relative Selleckchem Selinexor effect of three potential threats: climate, fisheries and diseases on the demography of an endangered marine predator and modelled its population dynamics to project its size under different scenarios. We based our study on a longterm monitoring of a colony of individually marked Indian yellow-nosed albatrosses at Amsterdam Island, subtropical Indian Ocean. that has declined during the past twenty years. We found no evidence for an impact of legal tuna longlining on demographic parameters. Hatching success was lower during El Nino years but survival (0.902 +/- 0.011) was not affected by climatic factors. Avian cholera caused high chick mortality (0.808 +/- 0.181) which in turn probably triggered the high emigration rate (0.038 +/- 0.011) through dispersal of failed breeders. This colony has a high risk of extinction. However, the rest of the population at Amsterdam Island seemingly not affected to the same extent, declined but stabilised since 1998.

The hole mobility has been found to be enhanced as a result of di

The hole mobility has been found to be enhanced as a result of dipolar alignment by exposure to a dc electric field via cooling at all elevated temperatures. At higher field, current density has been found to be governed by trapped charge limited currents (TCLC) with hole mobility strongly dependent on electric field and their respective charge transport parameters have been obtained for both samples. The density of trap states has been found to be decreased

on polarization from 1.1 x 10(18) to 7.6 x 10(17) cm(-3) and trap energy has correspondingly decreased from 43 to 35 meV. The TCLC model with Poole-Frenkel-type field-dependent mobility has been fitted into the data and found to be in excellent agreement. Temperature GW3965 dependence of zero field mobility (mu(0)) and disorder parameter (sigma) also has been estimated. We conclude that the relatively higher hole mobilities may be due to the orientational ordering of polar molecules and displacement of excess charges. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3553845]“
“The low-temperature ultraviolet (UV) irradiation equipment, developed in our Lab, was used to study the photo-aging of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC)

films at low temperature. The color change kinetics and corresponding structure development of PVC film during low-temperature PHA-739358 cost UV aging were studied through L*a*b* coordinates Commission International d’ signaling pathway Eclau-age (CIE 1976 color space) and Ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was

found that the yellowness difference (Delta b*) and color difference (Delta E*) of the PVC film increased almost linearly with the aging time. Their values had a slower change at lower temperature. The kinetic study showed that the relationship between the velocity of coloration of the PVC film and the temperature agreed well with Arrhenius equation at low temperature. The activation energy of coloration of the PVC film was calculated. The FTIR spectra indicated that photo-dehydrochloration, resulting in the generation of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds, was the main reaction for PVC during photo-aging at low temperature. Meanwhile, the photo-oxidation was also obvious and could not be neglected. It clearly confirmed that the absorption peaks of conjugated carbon-carbon double bond increased and shifted to longer wavelength during photo-aging in the UV-abs analysis. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2588-2593, 2011″
“The nucleation and growth of Pt atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Al2O3 substrates was studied using (methylcyclopentadienyl)-trimethyl platinum (MeCpPtMe3) and O-2 plasma as the reactants.


Conclusions: Our evidence suggests that spinal c


Conclusions: Our evidence suggests that spinal cord rotation is a strong and significant predictor of C5 palsy postoperatively. Patients can be classified into three types, with Type 1 representing mild rotation (0 degrees to 5 degrees), Type 2 representing moderate rotation (6 degrees to 10 degrees), and Type 3 representing severe rotation (>= 11 degrees). The rate of C5 palsy was zero of 159 in the Type-1 group, eight of thirteen in the Type-2 group, and SNX-5422 four of four in the Type-3 group. This information may be valuable for surgeons and patients considering anterior surgery in the C4 to C6 levels.”
“An N-Halamine biocidal polymer was prepared

by co-polymerizing toluene-2,6-diisocyanate with a new heterocyclic uramil-based azo-monomer, followed by halogenation. The mode of action of N-halamine polymers Smoothened Agonist order on bacteria was investigated and halogenation conditions (temperature, halogenation time, halogen concentration) were optimized for bactericidal action against E. coli and S. aureus. It was found that the mode of action of this type

of polymer is a combination of different factors; contact, release, and through interaction of the polymer with the bacterial medium. The most effective halogenation conditions were stirring 1 g polymer in 10 mL sodium hypochlorite (10 %) for 1 h at ambient temperature (22 degrees C). (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 2404-2412, 2009″
“The crystal structure and equation of state (EOS) of aluminum carbide (Al(4)C(3)) have been determined directly up to 50.1 GPa at room temperature by the synchrotron x-ray diffraction techniques. The results indicate that Al(4)C(3) remained in rhombohedral structure under all tested pressure-temperature conditions and exhibited anisotropic compressibility, with the c-axis more compressible than the a-axis. Fitting the experimental data to third order Birch-Murnaghan EOS yields a bulk modulus of K(OT)=233 +/- 6 GPa with its pressure derivative K(OT)’=3.4 +/- 0.4, while the second-order EOS yields K(OT)=223 +/- 2 GPa.

(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3246808]“
“Background: Unconstrained shoulder arthroplasty is one of several methods for treatment of proximal humeral fracture nonunions. The goal of this study was to define the results OICR-9429 cell line and complications of this procedure.

Methods: From 1976 to 2007, sixty-seven patients underwent unconstrained shoulder arthroplasty for proximal humeral nonunion and were followed for more than two years. There were forty-nine women and eighteen men with a mean age of sixty-four years and a mean duration of follow-up of nine years (range, two to thirty years). The fracture type according to the Neer classification was two-part in thirty-six patients, three-part in sixteen, and four-part in fifteen. Hemiarthroplasty was performed in fifty-four patients and total shoulder arthroplasty was done in the remaining thirteen.

“Aims: To detect microsatellite loci alterations by fluore

“Aims: To detect microsatellite loci alterations by fluorescent multiplex PCR in urine

sediment cell of urothelial carcinoma, and to determine if they can be used as genetic markers for diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Microsatellite alteration analysis was conducted using fluorescent multiplex PCR with samples from 64 cases of urothelial carcinomas of the bladder. Three microsatellites spanning the 3p14 and two additional AG-881 concentration microsatellites in 9q33 and 9p22 were analyzed. Microsatellite alterations (microsatellite instability and/or loss of heterozygosity) in urine sediment cells of urothelial carcinoma patients matched for peripheral blood and tumor tissue were all analyzed. Results: The frequency of Dinaciclib solubility dmso microsatellite alterations in urothelial carcinoma was chromosome 3p (D3S1234: 14.6% (7/48), D3S1300: 16.7% (8/48), D3S1313: 8.35% (4/48)); 9q (D9S242: 33.3% (16/48)), and 9p (D9S162: 27.1% (13/48)). Microsatellite alterations happened in 62.5% (40/64)

of the patients when combined with all five markers. Our study showed a significant correlation between the microsatellite alteration of the five-locus panel and recurrence (p = 0.010) and smoking habit (p = 0.006). Conclusions: The results suggest that these microsatellite loci alterations may have an important role in the recurrence of urothelial carcinomas. Further studies are needed to better determine the effect of microsatellite loci alterations on prognosis. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Purpose: Human malignant tumours are frequently found to be infected with a variety of viruses. The interaction of virus-encoded proteins with host cells proteins is highlighted in connection with the effect of viral proteins on DNA damage signalling and its impact on the sensitivity of cancer

cells to ionising radiation. Conclusion: selleck chemicals llc The interaction of virus-encoded proteins with host cells not only plays an important role in viral infection and the consequential pathogenesis, but may also have an influence on the response of infected cancers to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. A series of viral proteins have already been demonstrated to interact with host proteins that are associated with cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks, including DNA repair, apoptosis and cell cycle checkpoints, and this interaction results in mislocalisation, degradation, inactivation or activation of these host proteins. Some others directly or indirectly regulate the transcriptional level of a number of host genes or post-transcriptional modification of host proteins responding to ionising radiation, which leads to accumulation or downregulation of these gene products. These interactions between viral proteins and the hosts contribute to some extent to altered cellular radiosensitivity.