A step of bead beating (BioSpec, Bartlesville, OK) for one minute

A step of bead beating (BioSpec, Bartlesville, OK) for one minute was added to break cells, and all phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol washes were performed in phase lock gels (5 Prime, Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA). DNA was removed from extracted RNA with Turbo DNase treatment (Ambion, Austin, TX) at 37°C for 30 min followed

by purification with an RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Germantown, MD). The quality of RNA was selleck chemicals llc examined by gel electrophoresis using E-gel with SYBR Safer (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). High quality selleck screening library RNA was further re-precipitated, concentrated, and stored at -80°C. RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA using random hexamers (pd(N)6) (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ) and labeled with Amersham CyDye Post-Labeling Reactive Dye (Amersham Biosciences, Piscataway, NJ) following the protocol provided by the Amino Allyl cDNA Labeling Kit (Ambion, Austin, TX). The quantity and labeling efficiency of cDNA was measured using a NanoDrop Spectrophotometer

(ND-1000, Selleckchem Quisinostat Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, DE). Microarray slides for E. coli were purchased from the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB, Canada). Each slide contained three replicates of 5,978 70-mer oligonucleotides representing three E. coli strains (4,289 of them were for E. coli K-12). Sample preparation and loading, slide prehybridization, hybridization and washing were performed according to Corning protocols (GAPS II coated slides, Corning Inc., Lowell, MA). An extended 4-h prehybridization using a higher BSA concentration (1 mg/ml) was found to perform best in reducing background noise. Hybridization was in a Corning Microarray Hybridization

Chamber (Corning Inc.) in 42°C water bath. Microarray slides were scanned with a Virtek ChipReader (Virtek Vision, Waterloo, ON, Canada). Spots on scanned images were recognized and pixel intensity for each spot was quantified using check details the TIGR software Spotfinder (v3.1.1). Gene expression data were analyzed in the software Acuity 4.0 (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA). LOWESS normalization was performed for every microarray with three iterations using a smoothing factor of 0.4. Hybridized spots with oligonucleotides for strain E. coli K-12 having a high QC (quality control) value (> 0.1), good flag tags (A, B and C) in both Cy3/Cy5 channels were chosen for further analysis. One sample t-tests were performed across replicates. Step-down Bonferroni-Holm was used for the correction of multiple hypotheses testing. Genes with at least two-fold change in expression (p-value < 0.05) were considered to have changed expression during sample dispersion and IMS. Microarray data were deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE22885). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Primers for qPCR confirmation of the differential expression of eight identified genes in Table 1 are listed in Additional File 2: qPCR primers for nine tested genes.

e , the C-terminal proline-rich portion of ORF5 The ORF5 gene pr

e., the C-terminal proline-rich portion of ORF5. The ORF5 gene product [22] corresponds to the 486 aa protein having EMBL/GenBank accession number CAE77151 [5]. The ORF5 antiserum selected a series of overlapping peptides thereby identifying a B cell epitope and confirming that polyclonal serum could specifically select antigenic peptides from the phage displayed repertoire. A further important indication that the peptides had been specifically selected was that prior to panning, only 12.5% of the sequenced inserts contained in the library were both in-frame and in the correct orientation for translation as mycoplasmal peptides. In contrast, after panning, all were in-frame and

without stops. This finding, together with the way in which immunoselection yielded multiple copies Bindarit price of some peptides (find more particularly selleckchem those that overlapped but were not identical), provided additional evidence that the strategy was essentially sound. While 26 different MmmSC genes matched sequences selected by phage display, those chosen for expression in E. coli were required to have fulfilled criteria which were considered to have a bearing on their usefulness as possible vaccine antigens. Firstly, since the pathogen enters the animal via the nasal passages, preference was given to genes selected by IgA from Mali and Botswana. Secondly, only genes that were identified by multiple

overlapping copies of each phage displayed peptide qualified. Thirdly, peptides that fulfilled the first two criteria, but which were selected with a negative bovine serum were excluded. Finally, the protein’s likely function or structural position was taken into account with a focus on previously-identified

membrane-associated proteins [23] which also fulfilled antigenicity criteria as predicted by bioinformatics analyses. Although not excluded as being potentially useful, any overlapping sequences that coded for internally located proteins e.g. the DNA gyrase subunit B (Table 1) were not investigated in this study. Applying these criteria allowed us to focus on the ABC transporter, substrate-binding component protein (Abc), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN), the glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GlpO), the prolipoprotein B (LppB) and the PTS system, glucose-specific IIBC component (PtsG) for expression i n E. coli. By applying these criteria CHIR-99021 we do not exclude further studies on any of the other apparently antigenic proteins as vaccine or diagnostic targets. Even though the proliporotein LppC fulfilled our criteria, some of the peptides which matched the amino acid sequence included sequences of unknown origins which did not align with the target ORF (not shown). ABC transporter proteins act on a wide variety of substrates that include sugars, peptides, proteins and toxins [24]. For example, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter GtsABC together with GlpO forms part of the glycerol catabolism pathway associated with MmmSC virulence [25, 26].

Figure 6 GO graph of proteins identified by GeLC-MS/MS in the Tri

Figure 6 GO graph of proteins identified by GeLC-MS/MS in the Triton X-114 fraction of M. agalactiae PG2 T . Protein identifications are classified according to function Proteomic data were analyzed in order to investigate presence of liposoluble proteins resulting from expression of horizontally-transferred genes [24]. Among 194 identified proteins, 15 (7.8%) were acquired by HGT from the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster (Additional file 8), while 7 (3.7%) were acquired by HGT from other bacteria (Additional NU7441 order file 9), for a total of 22 proteins, making up to 11.5% of all expressed

membrane proteins being derived from putative HGT events. Discussion Gathering proteomic information on prokaryotic membranes is a challenging task, due to difficulties in cell fractionation LY294002 in vitro and to the intrinsic chemical properties of membrane proteins in general. Therefore, both systematic and differential proteomic information on prokaryotic membranes is generally lacking. In this work, we approached the systematic characterization of what is believed to be one of the simplest bacterial pathogen membranes, in an attempt

to move a step forward in our understanding of its composition, complexity, and function. In addition to its lower complexity, investigating membrane composition and plasticity in mycoplasmas is of particular interest since surface proteins are subjected to size and phase variation, and information on the extent and level of such variation is crucial in studies targeting identification of common immunogens, evaluation of immunological escape mechanisms, and

adaptation of the bacterium to its host. All six variable surface lipoproteins encoded in the PG2T genome [37] were detected by 2-D PAGE, although one of these (VpmaY) was not expressed in a field isolate examined by 2D DIGE. Triplicate experiments showed that the two-dimensional expression Amoxicillin pattern of each field isolate is relatively stable under laboratory conditions, and that there is a reproducible differential expression of several protein spots in the field isolates compared to the type strain PG2. Interestingly, these differences are being detected in bacteria which were grown in culture media, where all protein variants CP-690550 molecular weight should theoretically be expressed [37]. It was already demonstrated that the switching mechanism is so fast that it can be pointed out in a single colony on solid culture [14]. This might suggest that the lack of VpmaY in the isolate Nurri could result from a local genetic mutation. A large-scale study performed on a higher number of field isolates might enable the detection of constantly expressed proteins, which might be useful as targets for the development of vaccines and diagnostic tools for CA. Mycoplasmas have evolved a parasitic lifestyle, and membrane transporters are consequently very important for uptake of nutrients and growth factors. The genome of M.

Because heterogeneity may not lie in the different studies(P = 0

Because heterogeneity may not lie in the different studies(P = 0.98) in this meta-analysis, the check details fixed-effect model was used. Figure 1 Forest-plot of objective tumor response. The result of meta-analysis for Performance status The rates of improved or stable performance status were reported in 20 trials [20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31, 33, 36–43, 45–47], which included 1336 patients. Meta-analysis showed there was a statistically significant higher rate selleck of improved or stable performance status (RR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.70; P < 0.00001; Figure 2) when the SFI combined with platinum-based chemotherapy treatment group

was compared with the platinum-based chemotherapy control group, which meant the significant 57% increase in the RR for the rate of improved or stable performance status was attributable to

the SFI combined LDC000067 clinical trial with platinum-based chemotherapy treatment group. For the same reason as objective tumor response, the fixed-effect model was performed in this meta-analysis. Figure 2 Forest-plot of stabled/improved Kamofsky performance status. The result of meta-analysis for grade 3 or 4 WBC, PLT, HB, Nausea and Vomiting Toxicity In all included studies, 20 trials [20–25, 27–29, 32, 34–36, 38, 40–42, Dipeptidyl peptidase 44, 45, 48] reported the number of patients with grade 3 or 4 white blood cell (WBC) toxicity, 18 trials [20–25, 27–29, 32, 34–36, 40–42, 44, 45] reported the number of patients with grade 3 or 4 platelet (PLT) toxicity, 15 trials [20, 22–25, 28, 29, 32, 34–36, 41, 42, 44, 45] reported the number of patients with grade 3 or 4 hemoglobin (HB) toxicity and 14 trials [20, 22–24, 27–29, 35, 36, 38, 40–42, 45] reported the number of patients

with grade 3 or 4 nausea and vomiting. The rate of severe chemotherapy toxicity was calculated for WBC, PLT, HB, nausea and vomiting, and then meta-analyses were performed. As shown in Figures, the results indicated there was statistically significant lower severe toxicity for WBC (RR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.47; P < 0.00001; Figure 3), PLT (RR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.52; P < 0.00001; Figure 4), HB (RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.66; P < 0.0001; Figure 5) and nausea and vomiting (RR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.47; P < 0.00001; Figure 6) when the SFI plus platinum-based chemotherapy treatment group was compared with the platinum-based chemotherapy control group. Figure 3 Forest-plot of grade 3 or 4 WBC toxicity. Figure 4 Forest-plot of grade 3 or 4 PLT toxicity. Figure 5 Forest-plot of grade 3 or 4 HB toxicity. Figure 6 Forest-plot of grade 3 or 4 nausea and vomiting toxicity.

These techniques vary in their efficacy with regard to fascial cl

These techniques vary in their efficacy with regard to fascial AZD6738 closure rates, associated morbidity and mortality rates. A number of systematic reviews have concluded

that the artificial burr and NPWT have the highest fascial closure and lowest mortality rates [3, 4]. Because of its relative ease of application, and preservation of fascial tissue, NPWT is becoming a dominant choice for TAC in the open abdomen patient [1]. TAC can be appropriate in the treatment of OA derived from a wide range of traumatic, post-operative and septic Staurosporine mouse clinical scenarios. Together these form a complex and diverse group of wounds. Much of the published literature describing outcomes in OA is difficult to interpret

due to grouping together of these heterogeneous clinical scenarios with widely varying aetiologies, prognoses and even treatment goals. This leads to BAY 11-7082 solubility dmso highly variable reported outcomes and complication rates. The rate of fascial closure in open abdomen patients treated with NPWT has been reported as low as 22% [5] (in pancreatitis) and as high as 92% [6] (in trauma). In order to understand how outcomes and potentially treatment protocols vary in different types of open abdomen patients, researchers must first publish results from homogenous and well-defined subgroups. The World Society of Abdominal Compartment 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase Syndrome (WSACS) has proposed a simple clinical classification for describing the open abdomen (Bjorck et al.) [7] in order

to facilitate comparison of study outcomes and clinical approach (see Table 1). The aim of the current study was to use the Bjorck classification to report outcomes of a well-defined group of patients, (with grade 1 or 2 open abdomens derived from traumatic injury) following treatment with a recently introduced NPWT system for TAC in the open abdomen. A systematic review of the literature, identifying studies with comparable homogenous study populations, was carried out as a means of comparing results from this study with results from the literature. Table 1 Open abdomen classification Grade 1A Clean OA without adherence between bowel and abdominal wall or fixity of the abdominal wall (lateralization of the abdominal wall). Grade 1B Contaminated OA without adherence/fixity Grade 2A Clean OA developing adherence/fixity Grade 2B Contaminated OA developing adherence/fixity Grade 3 OA complicated by fistula formation Grade 4 Frozen OA with adherent bowel, unable to close surgically, with or without fistula Adapted from Bjorck et al. [7]. Methods Temporary abdominal closure A prospective, open labelled, non-comparative study was carried out in two centres in South Africa between August 2010 and December 2011.

Colors on the Y-axis indicate increasing numbers of dispersal cha

Colors on the Y-axis indicate increasing numbers of dispersal chains or corridors while colors on the X-axis represent increasing numbers of species based on species richness data for the year 2000. Used by permission buy SAHA HDAC from John Wiley and Sons (Williams et al. 2005) The term connectivity has taken on many

meanings in the context of biodiversity conservation. Crooks and Sanjayan (2006) identify two primary components of connectivity: “(1) the structural (or physical) component: the spatial arrangement of different types of habitat or other elements in the landscape, and (2) the functional (or behavioral) component: the behavioral response of individual, species or ecological processes to the physical structure of the landscape.” Connectivity has longitudinal, lateral (e.g., rivers to floodplains), vertical (e.g., recharge of subterranean ground water) and temporal (e.g., changing habitat distributions through time) dimensions. In regional conservation, connectivity has most commonly focused on developing corridors between areas to accommodate animal movement (e.g., Bruinderink et al. 2003; Fuller et al. 2006), and aquatic connectivity for fish migrations (e.g., Schick and Lindley 2007; Khoury et al. 2010). However, connectivity is also critical for the movement of water, sediment and nutrients, especially

in marine and freshwater systems (Abrantes and Sheaves 2010; Beger et al. 2010; Khoury et al. 2010). Temporal connectivity has not MK-0518 concentration received the same attention as spatial connectivity, but is likely critical Gefitinib order in the creation of climatic refugia, such as during prolonged drought

Thiazovivin molecular weight periods (Klein et al. 2009). At regional scales, conservation planners can affect connectivity in four general ways: altering the size, placement and number of conservation areas; changing the shape and orientation of conservation areas; adding specific linkages between conservation areas; and improving management of the intervening land, water and sea matrix. Regional conservation plans can inform each of these decisions. Although improving connectivity is a commonly recommended and widely applicable approach to adaptation (Heller and Zavaleta 2009; Krosby et al. 2010; Beier et al. 2011), implementing it can be difficult. First, we lack a complete understanding of exactly what types and locations of connectivity are needed to enable climate change-induced species movements, and whether they are similar to or different from connectivity needs under current climate conditions (Cross et al. 2012). Second, the optimal connectivity pattern will be different for nearly every species and community. Third, for most species we know very little about their connectivity needs and can answer the “how much is enough” question for only a few species—often large carnivores that are highly mobile and arguably the least challenged by movements needed for climate adaptation.

Easton et al (2007) were the first to add Gly to a Cr containing

Easton et al. (2007) were the first to add Gly to a Cr containing solution and demonstrate that a combination of the two hyperhydrating agents has an additive effect, as the addition of Gly to Cr significantly increased TBW more than Cr alone. Although the combination of the aforementioned hyperhydrating agents results in an increase in TBW and a reduction in certain cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses [19], the BM increase due to enhanced hydration selleck status could potentially reduce RE. The reduction of the energy cost of movement at a sub-maximal velocity by way of reducing BM to improve running performance is well known [20]. For instance,

it is noted that some marathon runners perform well despite dehydration of 4-8% BM [21]. Coyle [3] proposed that this may occur because fluid loss (i.e., reduced www.selleckchem.com/products/GDC-0941.html body mass) lowers the oxygen cost of movement. On the other hand, the acute influences of Wortmannin chemical structure hyperhydration on RE has not been investigation to date. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperhydration induced by a combined Cr and Gly supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and RE during 30 min of running at a running speed corresponding to 60% in cool

(10°C with a relative humidity of 70%) and hot conditions (35°C with a relative humidity of 70%) in well trained male athletes. In cool ambient conditions were intended to minimize heat stress during exercise this enabling a focus on the effects of the altered BM induced by hyperhydration on RE at 60% . However, effects of hyperhydration on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses are also expected

during exercise in hot and humid conditions; conditions typical of major sporting events (e.g., Olympic Summer Games). As such, it was hypothesized that Reverse transcriptase an increase in BM and TBW induced by hydrating agents such as Gly or Cr would improve thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses in line with previous findings but potentially negatively influence RE during running in the heat. Methods Subjects Fifteen trained male runners gave their written informed consent to take part in the present study which was approved by the University of Glasgow Ethics Committee and was performed according to the code of ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). One subject withdrew from the study before the final trial because of gastrointestinal distress during supplementation. Subjects were questioned as to their supplementation and training practices in order to ascertain that they had not supplemented with Cr for at least 8 weeks prior to commencing the study. Subjects were in good health at the time of testing, ran on a daily basis and participated regularly in competitive races. Athletes were also requested to maintain their typical weekly training regime during the course of the study.

An additional limitation is that the incidence rates of hip fract

An additional limitation is that the incidence rates of hip fracture were derived from the year 2004/2005 and were therefore not completely up to date. Unfortunately, Dutch national hip fracture data are no longer reliable after 2005. Due to a change in law, Dutch hospitals are no longer required to record their hospitalization rates by ICD9 code and send them to the national registry [9]. In order to overcome this limitation,

a future study has been designed, in which hip fracture rates will be updated by linkage of various Dutch epidemiological registries. A third limitation of FRAX in general is that it makes no use of several other important DNA Damage inhibitor clinical risk factors for fracture (such as previous vertebral fractures, a history of falls, vitamin D deficiency, and use of psychotropic drugs) [10, LEE011 research buy Selleckchem AZD1080 11, 18, 46, 47]. Although the model does take prior fractures into account, the number and recency of these fractures have not been included as predictors in the model, because of the lack of data available in the construct cohorts [19], but they probably are important. For instance, a Dutch retrospective cohort study showed that the incidence of new clinical fractures was higher among patients who had sustained multiple baseline fractures, when compared to those who

had sustained only a single fracture at baseline [48]. In addition, in the FRAX ® model, current use of oral glucocorticoids was not specified by cumulative or daily dose, which may be more accurate to use in order of to predict osteoporotic fractures [49, 50]. To overcome this limitation, a recent

study has shown a methodology to adjust conventional FRAX estimates of hip and osteoporotic fracture probabilities based on knowledge of the daily glucocorticoid dose in an individual patient [51]. The FRAX model assumes that the weight of each clinical risk factor on the risk of death and fracture is the same as that derived from the cohorts used in the construction of FRAX rather than on empirical data from the Dutch population. In the absence of national data, the assumption is reasonable, particularly since the weight of the clinical risk factors has been validated in an international perspective [6]. Finally, in contrast to the UK, cost-effectiveness has not been evaluated in the Netherlands, using FRAX® as a decision tool for BMD assessment or to start drug treatment [36]. Therefore, it is currently unclear at which fracture risk threshold interventions (such as BMD measurement or treatment with calcium and bisphosphonate) should be recommended in the Netherlands. Furthermore, fracture risk estimation by FRAX is limited to treatment-naive patients only. In conclusion, this paper describes the development of the Dutch FRAX model. This tool allows the estimation of 10-year absolute risks of hip and osteoporotic fracture in Dutch residents.

Surface smooth, rugose when old

Surface smooth, rugose when old. Ostiolar dots minute, olive or brown. Stroma colour first white, turning yellow, 4A3–4, brown-orange, 5CD5, greyish- to golden-yellow,

3B5–6, 4BC5–7, eventually (reddish) brown, 7E7–8, 6D7–8; buy Fosbretabulin mostly distinctly yellow when wet. Stromata when dry (0.6–)1.3–3.8(–8.0) × (0.4–)1.1–2.7(–4.7) mm, (0.3–)0.4–0.8(–1.1) mm thick (n = 75); solitary, gregarious or aggregated in small numbers (to 3) and pulvinate, or formed in large, subeffuse, flat and effluent, longish masses, becoming separated into individual stromata by cracks. Fertile part often flat, elevated on a short, stout, white stipe-like base, with margins laterally projecting beyond the base. Outline circular, angular, oblong or irregular. Margin margin sharply delimited, rounded, free, often white when young. Sides vertical

or slightly retracted downwards, learn more white or yellowish, initially with radiating base mycelium. Surface initially typically with a white, later disintegrating, covering layer, smooth, finely granular to rugose, often slightly downy. Ostiolar dots minute, (20–)32–58(–80) μm (n = 75) diam, numerous, first often concealed by the covering white layer, becoming distinct, plane, less CP673451 commonly convex, with circular or oblong outline, brown. Stromata first of small white mycelial tufts, becoming compacted, turning argillaceous, pale to greyish yellow-orange, 4A3–4, 5A2–4, 4–6B4–5, 6A4, 6C4, mostly yellow with brown dots, i.e. yellow-brown, 5CD4–7, eventually pale brown to reddish brown, 6E6–8, 7CD5–6, 8E5–8, when old. Spore deposits white or yellow. Rehydrated mature stromata pulvinate, with plane, finely floccose, yellow surface and numerous distinct, plane, (orange-)brown ostiolar dots. Ostiolar openings hyaline in water. After addition of 3% KOH stroma

surface turning bright red to dark red; ostiolar openings hyaline; drying reddish brown. Immature stroma after rehydration semiglobose, smooth, white, with numerous irregular, plane or convex, Staurosporine mw light ochre dots; after addition of 3% KOH ostiolar dots first slightly orange, later surface turning homogeneously pale orange; eventually stroma macroscopically dark brown to nearly black. Stroma anatomy: Ostioles (58–)66–85(–92) μm long, plane or projecting to 20(–30) μm, (20–)25–40(–57) μm wide at the apex (n = 30), periphysate, sometimes with clavate marginal cells to 6 μm wide at the apex. Perithecia (148–)180–220(–230) × (90–)110–170(–205) μm (n = 30), 7–8 per mm stroma length, flask-shaped or globose, often crowded and laterally compressed; peridium (11–)14–17(–18) μm (n = 30) thick at the base, (3–)8–15(–18) μm (n = 30) thick at the sides, golden yellow; bright orange-red in 3% KOH.

Bio/Technology 1983, 1:784–791 CrossRef Authors’ contributions TH

Bio/Technology 1983, 1:784–791.CrossRef Authors’ contributions TH, SM, find more YYO, YKo, and SSI performed the experiments. TH and NO designed the experiments. TMi constructed the TM157, TM129, and TM548 strains. YKu assisted with the experiments. MOI, TMa, and HD advised regarding the design of the experiments. TH and NO wrote the paper.”
“Background Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen causes a wide range of disease syndromes, including life-threatening endocarditis, meningitidis and pneumonia. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention this bacterium has been reported to be the most significant cause of serious infections in the United States [1]. S. aureus is able to

cause and develop an infection learn more very efficiently due to its ability to produce a few dozen of virulence factors, on one hand, and an ease of antibiotic resistance development, on the other. The most dangerous are methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, constituting 50% of hospital-aquired isolates as well as emerging vancomycin-resistant variants,

isolated from some hospital settings [2]. Among several virulence factors, S. aureus produces enzymes responsible for resistance against oxidative stress, like catalase and superoxide dismutase (Sod). Sod converts superoxide anion (O2·-) into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a less potent biological oxidant, which is further decomposed by catalase to water and ground state oxygen. Sod enzyme is produced in response to the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated endogenously as an effect of oxygen metabolism or, exogenously produced by neutrophils and macrophages. Superoxide anion,

which Dimethyl sulfoxide is the product of oxygen reduction, reacts with hydrogen peroxide within the bacterial cell and produces free hydroxyl ICG-001 molecular weight radical (.OH), the most dangerous oxygen species able to interact with virtually any organic substance in the cell. Superoxide anion can reduce hypochlorus acid (HOCl) arose as a result of H2O2 interaction with phagocyte-derived peroxidases, and further form .OH [3]. The classification of Sod enzymes is based on the type of transition metal present in their active center, including manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and a few years ago a nickel (Ni)-containing Sod was described, originally isolated from the cytoplasm of Streptomyces seoulensis [4, 5]. In the Escherichia coli bacterium model, the presence of three Sods were described: Fe- and Mn- Sods localized in the cytoplasm, whereas in the periplasm copper-zinc (Cu-Zn) SOD was detected [6]. S. aureus produces three Sod enzymes, encoded by two genes, sodA and sodM [7, 8]. The particular subunits form two kinds of Sod homodimers, i.e. SodA-SodA and SodM-SodM as well as SodA-SodM heterodimers, easily distinguishable on native gels stained for Sod activity [8]. Both, SodA and SodM subunits are believed to possess Mn ions as a cofactor in the active site.